14 SES 06 B, Family Education and Parenting - Later Stages of Schooling
Global warming is a serious environmental issue nowadays. It does not only bring extreme weather changes, but also cause economic loss. For sustainable development, many countries, including Taiwan, have implemented many policies intended to mitigate global warming, and to reduce carbon emission, including increased use of renewable energy and increased energy efficiency. However, the overall effects were not obvious.
The 2007–2008 Gallup Polls surveyed 127 countries, and found over a third of the world's population was unaware of global warming. By 2010, the Gallup surveyed 111 countries, and found that there was a substantial decrease in the number of Americans and Europeans who viewed global warming as a serious threat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming).
In Taiwan, energy conservation and carbon emission reduction has been listed as important guiding principles of government policies, and the year of 2010 was even named as “the year of energy conservation and carbon emission reduction”. The government implemented many policies and intended to develop Taiwan into a low-carbon country. However, the results are not so effective. In 2009, Taiwan was included in ranking of Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) by Germanwatch regarding CO2 emission trend, level, and climate policy. Among 57 countries, Taiwan ranked 29, the following year, Taiwan ranked 44, and in 2012, Taiwan ranked 50, indicating that overall performance was very poor (Burck, Bals, & Bohnenberger, 2012).
Scholars (Environmental Research Associates, 1994; Phillips, 1999; Lin, 2007) suggested that the most efficient way to conserve energy and reduce carbon emission is to start energy education on school-age children. Energy education at elementary schools is likely to have lasting effects on children and their parents. When children learn knowledge regarding global warming, energy conservation, and carbon emission reduction, and have positive attitudes and behaviors toward environment at school, they are likely bring these knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors home and affect their parents and family members (Kuo, 2010).
So far, most research has focused on students and schools, less research is done with parents at home. This was the second year study of a 3-year longitudinal study of the effects of energy education intervention on elementary school children and their parents; the major research question was to study whether energy education intervention (parent-child handout and worksheets) at home affects children. There were three major objectives.
1. To describe pretests and posttests of children’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards energy saving and carbon emission reduction in Taiwan elementary schools.
2. To design four handouts and worksheets of energy education and implement them with the experimental group at home.
3. To analyze the effects of experiment of parent-child energy education intervention at home.
Theoretical framework assumes that experimental treatment of parent-child energy education intervention has positive effects on children’s posttest scores of knowledge, attitudes, and behavors towards energy saving and carbon emission reduction, controlling for children’s pretest scores.
Burck, J. & Bals, C., & Parker, L. (2011). Climate Change Performance Index, CCPI 2011 http://www.germanwatch.org/ccpi Environmental Research Associates (ERA) (1994). Research Group Examines Children’s Environmental Views. Paint and Coatings Industry, 10(3), 32-33. Lin, C.-T. (2007). A Study on Cognition and Attitude toward Energy-Related Issues of the Fifth and Sixth Grade Students in Kaohsiung-Pingtung Area. (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung. Kuo, C.-L. (2010). The Study on the Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Intention about Global Warming, Energy Saving, and Reducing Carbon Emission of the Junior High School Students in Taipei Area. (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei. Phillips, L. E. (1999). Green Attitude. American Demographics, 21(4), 46-47. Su, Hsiu-Chih, Tsay, Hsin-Sheng, Wang, Wei-Kuo, Chang, Hua-Nan, Wang, Wen-Yu, Pai, Tzu-Yi (2012). Survey of Parents’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors towards Energy Saving and Carbon Emission Reduction in Taiwan Elementary Schools. The Journal of Chaoyang University of Technology, 17, 107-154.
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