20 SES 03, Music and Art Education in an Intercultural Environment
In recent years there has been a shift from a de-contextualized, psychological focus on children’s drawings towards an increased interest in children’s meaning making through drawing, and a focus on the socio-cultural contexts of drawing activity (Anning, 2003). However, children’s drawings cannot be easily understood out of context. Researchers are using techniques that allow children to express their perspectives. In this article, the issues for the child and researcher of using the draw and write technique as a research methodology are explored. Furthermore, in the basis of this research was the Kuhn’s (2003) model of data collection and analysis which combined thematic drawing and focused, episodic interview. The Kuhn’s model of analysis of children’s drawings was originally used in kinesiology for the evaluation of children's attitudes about the game and sports activities in the school area and has been implemented in research conducted in Germany. The Kuhn’s method is adjusted using the draw and write technique as a research methodology. The authors used draw and write methodology framework depicted in several research studies (Gabhainn, & Kelleher, 2002; Horstman, Aldiss, Richardson, & Gibson, 2008; Reeve, & Bell, 2009).
The methodological issues raised by the adjustment of Kuhn’s model are in the focus of this research proposal. Reflections on the technique are drawn from our experience of using it in study with students aged 8 to 10 years. This was part of a larger mixed methods study undertaken to investigate the relationship between the way younger school-age students perceive the museum and degree of didactic structuring of museum contents. The young students were asked to draw a picture showing their museum visit to Museum of Ancient Glass in Zadar (Croatia) and to write a shot text about it. Free written expression of students and their drawings illustrate children’s abilities to convey their opinions when there is an enabling climate created and allow school and museum professionals richer and more complex insight into the nature of pupils' perceptions of the museum as an educational environment and its contents. The adjusted Kuhn’s method in this research, using the draw and write technique, has enabled us to notice orientation of students in the experimental and control groups on social interaction in peer groups and communications with adults, level of perceptual focus of pupils included in both groups in the direction of museum exhibits, the number and precise spatial positioning of exhibits displayed in the museum, as well as identifying contents of imagination and their semantic dimension in the context of children's perceptions.
Anning, A. (2003). Pathways to the graphicacy club: The crossroad of home and preschool. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 3(1), 5-35. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2006). Metode istraživanja u obrazovanju. Zagreb: Naklada Slap. Gabhainn, S. N., & Kelleher, C. (2002). The sensitivity of the draw and write technique. Health Education, 102(2), 68 – 75. Hall, E. (2008). My brain printed it out! Drawing, communication, and young children: a discussion. Presented on British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 3-6 September 2008. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/174158.pdf Hawkins, B. (2002). Children's drawing, self expression, identity and the imagination. International Journal of Art and Design Education, 21(3), 209–219. Horstman, M., Aldiss, S., Richardson, A., & Gibson, F. (2008). Methodological Issues When Using the Draw and Write Technique With Children Aged 6 to 12 Years. Qualitative Health Research, 18(7), 1001-1011. Kuhn, P. (2003). Thematic Drawing and Focused, Episodic Interview upon the Drawing—A Method in Order to Approach to the Children's Point of View on Movement, Play and Sports at School. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 4(1). http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs030187 Malchiodi, C. (1998). Understanding children’s drawings. New York, London: The Guilford Press. MacGregor, J. (1989). The discovery of the art of the insane. Lawrenceville, NJ: Princeton University Press. Reeve, S., & Bell, P. (2009). Children’s self-documentation and understanding of the concepts ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy. International Journal of Science Education, 31(14), 1953 — 1974 . Silver, R., & Ellison, J. (1995). Identifying and assessing self-images in drawings by delinquent adolescents. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 22(4), 339-352. Winnicott, D. (1971). Playing and reality. New York: Basic Books.
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