02 SES 11, Literacy Practices and Practical Education
A New Normal of Practical Education?
Creativity and innovation have become increasingly desirable competences in both public and private sectors in Europe. The ability of doing things in new ways never seen before is said to be the key competence to improve nations’ competitive positions at the global market. In Denmark the emphasis on innovation is not only a political heritage from the former liberal government. When the social democratic government took over in 2011 the focus on innovation got a central position in the government’s platform,.
Creativity and innovation has a special importance in the public sector. The Nordic countries’ images as welfare states are crucial to national identities and with the financial crisis the welfare professionals such as i.e.teachers, social workers, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and midwives are put under pressure to perform innovatively so that welfare can be offered for less money.
At the same time as creative and innovative forces are asked to be empowered, the steering logic of New Public Management dominates the public sector in Denmark (Moos 2004, Hjort 2004). It also counts the field of education. Within nurse education (here used as case) 25 different nursing schools have been placed in 7 larger University Colleges. The different curricula have been replaced by one unifying national curriculum ([Ministry of Education]Undervisningsministeriet 2008). Learning objectives have been standardized both within the theoretical and practical part of the education. Formulation of study plans (general and individual) are mandatory (ibid). Both the hospital- and educational logic is under influence of NPM and the professionals must to a certain extend integrate the logic in order to position oneself beneficially. If both theoretical and practical education is offered the learning potentials must be different. The question is what kind of teaching practices emerge under these conditions? And how are the chances to empower creative thinking and innovative solutions?
A study of teaching practices has been done on the practical part of nurse education (Højbjerg 2011). The idea was to examine teaching practices and the embedded knowledge. Furthermore to examine the dominant values, ideals and norms of practical education at University College where clinical teachers are educated.
The theoretical frame work was mainly taken from Pierre Bourdieu and his theory of practice. The concepts of capital, habitus and field were used to construct the dominant ways of teaching. Andrew Abbotts system of professions and his concept of jurisdiction was used to focus on the boundaries between the nurses with clinical teacher’s formal education and the nurses without the formal education. The concepts of system of knowledge were used to analyze the knowledge brought into play in the teaching practices.
ABBOTT, A. 1988. The System of Professions. An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor, Chicago and London, The University of Chicago Press. ABBOTT, A. 2005a. Linked Ecologies: States and Universities as Environments for Professions [Online]. [Accessed 23:3]. ABBOTT, A. 2005b. Ecologies and Fields [Online]. Chicago University. [Accessed 19.4. 2011]. BOURDIEU, P. & P. J.C. Passeron. 2006. Reproduktionen, København, Hans Reitzels Forlag. BOURDIEU, P. 2002. Distinction - A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London, Routledge. BOURDIEU, P. & WACQUANT, L. J. D. 1996. Refleksiv sociologi, København, Hans Reitzels Forlag A/S. BRANTE, T. 2005. Staten og professionerne. In: ERIKSEN, T.R. og JØRGENSEN, A. M. (ed.) Professionsidentitet i forandring. København: Akademisk Forlag. BROADY, D. 1998a. Kapitalbegreppet som utbildningssociologiskt vertyg. Skeptronhäften / Skeptron Occational Papers, nr. 15. Uppsala, ILU Uppsala Universitet. CZIKZENTMIHALYI, M. Where is Creativity. I: Czikzentmihalyi, M.: Creativity. The Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. Harper Perennial. HJORT, K. 2005. Professionaliseringen i den offentlige sektor, Frederiksberg, Roskilde Universitetsforlag. HJORT, K. 2008. Moderniseringen af den offentlige sektor. Frederiksberg, Roskilde Universitetsforlag. MOOS, L. 2004. Relationsprofessioner - hvem er de? In: MOOS, L. et al. (ed.) Relationsprofessioner - lærere, pædagoger, sygeplejersker, sundhedsplejersker, socialrådgivere og mellemledere. København, Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag. TANGGAARD, Lene ( 2008). Kreativitet skal læres. Når talent bliver til innovation. Aalborg Universitetsforlag. 1. http://www.stm.dk/publikationer/Et_Danmark_der_staar_sammen_11/Regeringsgrundlag_okt_2011.pdf 2. Governemental innovationstrategy, downloaded 24.1.13 from: http://fivu.dk/nyheder/temaer/2012/innovationsstrategi/vision 3.Education of Clinical teachers within the middle range health educations are offered by the University Colleges. The education equivalents 9 ECTS. The education is a post graduate education for nurses, midwives, radiographs, bioanalytics, occupational- and physiotherapists according to the executive order from Ministry of Education, Bekendtgørelse om uddannelse af kliniske vejledere til de mellemlange videregående
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