20 SES 03, Music and Art Education in an Intercultural Environment
The main purpose of this study was to analyze and determine the psychometric criteria -reliability and validity- of a questionnaire on musical styles preferences in secondary education, in the frame of the musical tastes of secondary education students and in an intercultural context, the Spanish city of Melilla, a North African enclave bordered. The subjects of the research were 667 students who study in 7 public centres, and their ages are between the 12 and 18 years, being the average age 14.28, the women percentage 51.6%, and the males 48.4%. In order to get that the sample should be representative of the population it has been chosen a group of students at random from each one of the years that are part of the educational stage of the compulsory secondary education, that is, a group of 1st year, a group of 2nd year, a group 3rd year and a group of 4th year in each educational centre. About the cultural origin, the majority of the participants are Berber (55.9%), follow by the Europeans (39.1%) and, finally the mixed coming from families composed of Berbers and Europeans (4.9%). To elaborate the definitive questionnaire about preferences of the musical styles it was considered the modifications that 17 judges proposed, this last is composed by 2 wide items that at the same time were containing more elements. Just like the previous it has a first section that request personal dates and, a second section in which appear a number of items at which it had answer in a Likert scale of 1 to 5. Some items also were containing a second question that was the open answer. All the items were grouped in the following categories: Frequency of musical styles listening, The influence of the informal education in the preference of musical styles listening, and The influence of the formal education in the preference of musical styles listening. It was made to a factor analysis with Varimax rotation, which revealed the existence of 13 factors that were explained the 62.29% of the total variance in which the different items have grouped. The questionnaire was administered to the subjects in the school year. The students filled out the questionnaire in two 50 minute sessions during the same week. The reliability was analyzed using a test-retest procedure, and the correlation between the first and second testing session with the questionnaire was determined using a Pearson correlation. On the other hand, the reliability was also calculated using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which showed a value of 0.931, this is, near to the unit, which indicate a high index of internal consistency in the answers of the teenagers in front of the questionnaire. To determine the validity of the content of questionnaire, it was used the technique of expert judgment criteria proposed by Barbero, Vila & Suárez (2003).
Barbero, Vila & Suárez (2003). Barbero, M. I., Vila, E. & Suárez, J. C. (2003). Psicometría. Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. González, D (1999). El proceso de la investigación por encuesta. In L. Buendía, D. Gómez, J. Gutiérrez & M. Pegalajar (Eds.), Modelos de análisis de la investigación educativa (pp. 171-174). Sevilla: Alfar. Lorenzo & Herrera (2001). Cuestionarios sobre conocimiento y preferencias del estilo musical. Granada: Departamentos de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal y Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación (Universidad de Granada).
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