02 SES 05 A, Drop-Out, Pathways and Later Educational Outcomes
Learning experiences at the workplace and at vocational school influence apprentices’ educational outcomes in many different ways. Positive learning experiences, such as ample learning possibilities, control and autonomy in defining learning tasks, interesting assignments, or supportive teachers and trainers, are linked to higher educational satisfaction, organisational and occupational commitment, and job-related competencies, as well as to lower risks for educational dropout (Cart & Trelcat, 2010; Karmel & Mlotkowski, 2010; Onstenk & Blokhuis, 2007; Rauner, 2009; Stalder, 2012; Vazsonyi & Snider, 2008).
Apprentices, whose apprenticeship contract is terminated early (before they achieve their VET-degree) are in general less satisfied with their apprenticeship, assess their opportunities for learning less positively and the pedagogical competences of their trainers and teachers more negatively than apprentices with a linear educational pathway (Stalder & Schmid, 2006; 2012). Among the group of apprentices with an early contract termination, learning experiences during apprenticeship seem to vary considerably. Stalder and Schmid (2007) analysed learning experiences of apprentices with respect to their educational and work situation shortly after the contract termination. They showed, for instance, that apprentices who continued their apprenticeship in the same occupation but another company reported more negative experiences at the workplace and more positive experiences at the vocational school than apprentices who did not re-enter a VET programme.
Arguing that an early contract termination can be seen as opportunity for change, Schmid und Stalder (2012) showed that up to one half of the apprentices had re-entered an upper secondary education or training programme within the first three months after the termination. Two years after the termination about three-quarters had re-started such a programme, mainly staying in apprenticeship training. Factors influencing the chance for re-entry and successful completion of the new education and training programme included the educational and work activities of the (former) apprentices shortly after the contract termination, reasons for the termination, or social support received in finding a new training place (Schmid, 2010). It was, for instance, shown that the chance to obtain an upper secondary (VET-)diploma at a later stage was considerably higher for those apprentices, who had re-entered education and training immediately after the early termination.
This papers aims to add to the previous findings by contrasting existing research on effects of learning experiences on apprenticeship dropout with new results that focus learning experiences' long-term effects on later educational outcomes. The main research questions are:
- In what way do former learning experiences at the former workplace and at vocational school contribute to (successful) later educational outcomes?
- Do former learning experiences predict later educational outcomes even when controlling for educational and work activities of apprentices shortly after the contract cancellation?
- Do experiences at the workplace and at vocational school affect outcomes in the same way?
Cart, B., & Trelcat, M.-H. T. (2010). Apprenticeship contracts: why they are breached? Training & Employment, 89, 1-4. Karmel, T., & Mlotkowski, P. (2010). How reasons for not completing apprenticeships and traineeships change with duration. Adelaide: National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). Onstenk, J., & Blokhuis, F. (2007). Apprenticeship in The Netherlands: connecting school- and work-based learning. Education + Training, 49, 489-499. Rauner, F., et al. (2009). Messen beruflicher Kompetenzen, Vol.2 (2nd ed.). Muenster: LIT. Schmid, E., & Stalder, B. E. (2007). Lehrvertragsauflösung: direkter Wechsel und vorläufiger Ausstieg. Ergebnisse aus dem Projekt LEVA. Bern: Bildungsplanung und Evaluation der Erziehungsdirektion. Schmid, E. (2010). Kritisches Lebensereignis „Lehrvertragsauflösung“. Eine Längsschnittstudie zum Wiedereinstieg und zum subjektiven Wohlbefinden betroffener Jugendlicher. Bern: hep. Schmid, E., & Stalder, B. E. (2012). Dropping out from apprenticeship training as an opportunity for change. In: P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education. Dordrecht: Springer,117-130 Stalder, B. E. (2012). School-to-work transitions in apprenticeship-based VET systems: the Swiss approach. In: S. Billett, G. Johnson, S. Thomas, C. Sim, S. Hay & J. Ryan (Eds.), The experience of school transitions: policies, practice and participants. Berlin: Springer, 123-139. Stalder, B. E., & Schmid, E. (2006). Lehrvertragsauflösungen, ihre Ursachen und Konsequenzen. Ergebnisse aus dem Projekt LEVA. Bern: Bildungsplanung und Evaluation der Erziehungsdirektion. Stalder, B. E., & Schmid, E. (2012). Zurück zum Start? Berufswahlprozesse nach Lehrvertragsauflösungen. In: M. M. Bergman, S. Hupka-Brunner, T. Meyer & R. Samuel (Eds.), Bildung-Arbeit-Erwachsenwerden. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 265-285. Vazsonyi, A. T., & Snider, J. B. (2008). Mentoring, competencies, and adjustment in adolescence: American part-time employment and European apprenticeships. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 46-55.
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