14 SES 08 A, Policies and Actions to Promote School-Family-Community Links - The Concept of Cooperation
Learning sciences have shown, since the first contributions to the dialogic turn in social sciences (Berger and Luckmann, 1988; Habermas, 1987; Searle, 1969; Schutz and Luckmann, 1977), that processes of teaching and learning based on interactive environments improve the quality of learning. In this sense the dialogic turn in social sciences has been mainly based on Vygotsky’s (1978) conceptions and other theories derived from cultural-historical psychology. His major contribution is based on the idea that learning initially occurs in social interaction and then becomes an intrapsychological activity. He makes up the concept of “Zone of Proximal Development” showing how this relationship occurs from the inter-psychological sphere to the intra-psychological through a mediation established by an adult or other guides more capable (Vygotsky, 1978). Therefore the social aspect of learning acquires a crucial role. Other authors (Bruner, 1973; Radziszewka & Rogoff, 1991) have sustain their learning theories on culture, community and interaction, highlighting the importance of transforming classrooms in learning environments for promoting student’s learning. Expanding this idea of a collaborative knowledge construction several concepts such us “Communities of Practice” have been developed (Lave and Wenger, 1991), “Dialogic inquiry Communities” (Wells, 1999), “Schools as learning communities” (Brown and Campione, 1994; Rogoff, Goodman and Barlett, 2001).
There is little transfer from scientific contributions to classroom’s reality. Thus, INCLUD-ED project (2006-211) evidences, seeks how to introduce successful measures to improve students' learning. One of these measures related to how to organize spaces and curriculum within classroom are interactive groups (Racionero, García, Ortega y Flecha, 2012). This measure promotes learning environments based on the quantity and quality of social interactions. In this paper we aim to: (1) extract dimensions and variables (not closed), through dialogue among agents involved in the learning process; this objective will focus on improving the evaluation of this measure, endeavoring to improve teachers’ performance. (2) Develop a proposal for teachers who want to put into practice this measure.
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