14 SES 05 A, School Related Transitions within a Life Course Perspective II
Research questions and hypotheses:
In the development of students’ reading skills, many factors may involve. In this research, we intended to focus on individual, familial and school variables which were related to the element of “the reader” from the perspective of the development of students’ reading comprehension, integrating reading comprehension with its related factors into a multilevel model in one study.The hypotheses of this study are (1) students’ reading comprehension can be predicted by individual variables (gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies), familial variables (household income), and school variables (teacher’s qualification and teacher’s experience); (2) Teacher’s qualification and their experience are associated with students’ reading motivation and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies.
Students’ reading competence is critical in understanding texts or other related materials in content areas (Chapman & King, 2009); however, recent research indicates that there was a decline in the students’ reading achievement in some age groups in some areas or countries during the past decade (Netten, 2012). Hence, there is an increasing interest in what factors may associate with students reading comprehension (OECD, 2010; OECD, 2011). Previous research showed that students’ gender, reading motivation, socioeconomic status, home reading environment, and teacher-student relationship could be correlates of reading comprehension.
The RAND Reading Study Group (2002) has proposed a definition that reading comprehension is “the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language” (p. 11). They believed that this process entailed three elements: The reader, the text and the activity. In the development of students’ reading skills, many factors may involve. From the perspective of gender difference, researchers discovered that reading ability and attitudes have a close relation with gender (e.g., Logan & Johnston, 2009). As an individual element, reading motivation has been discovered as a key factor associated with reading performance (e.g., De Naeghel, Van Keer, & Vansteenkiste, & Rosseel, 2012; Logan, Medford, & Hughes, 2011). Chiu and McBride-Chang (2010) found that students’ family socioeconomic status (SES) is positively correlated with individual reading achievement.
In this study we will develop a comprehensive multilevel model on the relation between reading comprehension and its coorelates in secondary school students. In the model, individual and familial variables are nested within school variables. In level 1, students’ individual and familial characteristics, including gender, autonomous reading motivation, controlled reading motivation, metacognitive awareness of reading strategies, and household income, were used to predict reading comprehension; in level 2, school characteristics, including teacher’s qualification and teacher’s experience, were added to the model to assess their correlation with reading comprehension.
Chapman, C., & King, R. (2009). Differentiated instructional strategies for reading in the content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Chiu, M. M., & McBride-Chang, C. (2010). Family and reading in 41 countries: Differences across cultures and students. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14, 514–543. De Naeghel, J., Van Keer, H., Vansteenkiste, M., & Rosseel, Y. (2012). The relation between elementary students’ recreational and academic reading motivation, reading frequency, engagement, and comprehension : A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 1006-1021. Logan, S., Medford, E., & Hughes, N. (2011). The importance of intrinsic motivation for high and low ability readers' reading comprehension performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 124-128 . Logan, S. & Johnston, R. (2009). Gender differences in reading ability and attitudes: Examining where these differences lie. Journal of Research in Reading, 32,199-214. Netten, A. (2012). The impact of PIRLS in the Netherlands. In K. Schwippert, & J. Lenkeit (Eds.), Progress in reading literacy in national and international context: The impact of PIRLS 2006 in 12 Countries (pp. 151-162). Münster, Germany: Waxmann Verlag GmbH. OECD (2010). PISA 2009 results: What students know and can do - Student performance in reading, mathematics and science (Vol. I). Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD (2011). PISA 2009 results: Overcoming social background - Equity in learning opportunities and outcomes (Vol. II). Paris: OECD Publishing. RAND Reading Study Group. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward a research and development program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Valcke, M., & Mo, L. (2010). [Reading tests for secondary school students (The tests were developed and validated by the research team and were used by the authors’ authorization)]. Unpublished data. Wu, L., Valcke, M., & Van Keer, H. (2012). Validation of a Chinese Version of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 48, 117-134.
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