ERG SES H 01, Higher Education
The Interplay between Internationalization, (Inter)Regionalization and Globalization of Higher Education
The cooperative/competitive landscape of higher education, particularly since the second half of the 20th century, has been manifested through the evolving processes and phenomena of internationalization, (inter)regionalization and globalization. With varying ontological and epistemological perspectives, internationalization, (inter)regionalization and globalization of higher education interplay or have a crossroad perspectives. The previaling literature concentrates on the interplay between internationalization and globalization. This paper adds a third outbound dimension of the higher education.
- Research question: What conceptual interplay prevails between Internationalization, inter-regionalization and globalization of higher education?
Research Objectives: To analyze the interplay between internationalization, (inter)regionalization and globalization of higher education
Internationalization of higher education, according to Knight (2004), is
''the process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions (primarily teaching/learning, research, service) or delivery of higher education.'' As Coelen (2013) quoted Leaks, Internationalization is ‘’the incorporation of an international and intercultural dimension into the center of curriculum as well as the teaching and learning arrangements and support services of a program of study. An internationalized curriculum will engage students with internationally informed research and cultural and linguistic diversity. It will purposefully develop their international and intercultural perspectives as global professionals and citizens.’’ (Coelen, 2013)
Regionalization is the process through which states come together by geographical relationship and a degree of mutual interdependence as supranationals formations to share a common political and economic projects and develop a certain degree of common identity. Regionalization of higher education is about program, strategy and related institution-building that enable the empirical process and patterns of cooperation, integration, complementarity and convergence within a particular cross-national geographical space (Bjorn, 2000, Robertson, 2007, Mucchilli, et.al., 1998).
With its stronger regional focus, regionalization is often used in opposition to the less connecting process of globalization(Huang, 2013).
Globalization refers to world-wide and deals with economic, political, cultural, technological interconnectedness. Specifically, globalization of higher education is an array of cross-border exchange program, curricular initiatives, student markets, and so on. This is supported by technologial facilities (Langthaler, 2010, Marginson, 2007).
Even though, the three terms are different in meaning and context, in reference to higher education trend and policy directions, globalization, internationalization, and regionalization are similar in that all claim a trend or policy direction away from a more or less closed national system of higher education. All play a growing role in cross-border knowledge communication/transfer and through a more complex setting of multi-level stakeholders and practitioners. The three terms also claim to play a role in either changing the context that may result in challenges for higher education or to changes that may occur within higher education itself (Teichler, 2004).
The cooperative/competitive landscape of higher education, particularly since the second half of the 20th century, has been manifested through the evolving processes and phenomena of internationalization, (inter)regionalization and globalization. With varying ontological and epistemological perspectives, internationalization, regionalization and globalization of higher education interplay. Regionalization emphasizes outward-looking integration project that should avoid high level of protection and should form part of the ongoing internationalization and globalization process of the world political economy. Unlike most literature that deal only with the interplay of internationalization and globalization, this paper analyzes and explores the interplay of the three cross-border dimensions of higher education namely, internationalization, regionalization and globalization. The paper depends on the analysis of the related literature.
References Bjorn Hettne and Fredrik Soderbaum (2000). Theorising the Rise of Regionnness, New Political Economy, 5:3, 457-472, DOI: 10.1080/713687778 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713687778 accessed 02 October 2013. Coelen, Robert. (2013). Student Should be at the Center of Internationalization. In University World News, Issue 301, 23 December 2013. Huang, Futao, Huang, (2013). The internationalization of the Academic Profession. In Futao, Finkelstein, Martin, and Rostan, Michele (eds.) (2013). The internationalization of the Academy: Changes, Realities and Prospects. Springer. Knight, J. (2004). Internationalization remodeled: Definitions, rationales, and approaches. Journal for Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5-31. Langthaler, Margarita. (2010). Does Globalized Education Benefit Development? Introductory Considerations on Development and Power in the Context of Internationalization in Tertiary Education.in OFSE/OeAD-GmbH/KOO(Hg), Internationalization of Higher Education and Development. Zur Rollevon Universitaten und Hochschulen in Entwicklungsprozessen, OFSE-edition 15, Wien, 19-31. Marginson, Simon and der Wende, Marijk van (2007). Globalization of Higher Education. OECD Working paper. Mucchilli, J.L., Buckery, P.J., and Cordell, V.V. (eds.). (1998). Globalization and Regionalization: Strategies and Policies and economic environments. New York:International Press. Robertson, Susan L., (2007). Regionalism 'Europe/Asia' and higher Education, published by the Centre for Globalization, Education and Socities, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1JA, UK, http://susanleerobertson.com/publications/ accessed 27 December 2013. Teichler, U. (2004). The Changing Debate on Internationalization of Higher Education. Higher Education, 48 (1), 5-26.
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