01 SES 03 A, Impact of Professional Development
One strategy to bring about change in schools is to offer further education programmes for school staff. However there is very little empirical evidence to date that deals with the ways in which further education programmes need to be structured in order to make a significant impact on everyday school life (Lipowsky, 2010, p. 51; Hattie, 2013, p. 144ff). Evidence from the Swiss Canton of Zurich shows that school staff doesn`t consider long-lasting programmes to be attractive (BASS, 2012) even though long-term courses promise more sustainable learning (see below).
According to Lipowsky (2010) there is a threefold challenge for the conception of new professional improvement programmes. Of central importance is the thematic aspect of the programmes. Topics must appeal to the participants and connect to their daily work life (Heine, 2007). Second: Providers are also challenged to orientate their programmes towards the current state of research and to sufficiently take into account aspects of didactic methodology. Finally, it is necessary to investigate further education programmes systematically in terms of their efficacy, by carrying out research during and after the programme.
During the last few years, a team of education professionals from Zurich, Amsterdam and the Principality of Lichtenstein rose to these challenges and developed a further education programme named “Education for the future - International Programme for Education Professionals”.
The main thrust of the programme is twofold: First, the participants and lecturers from the three countries discuss societal trends (OECD, 2010; Hurrelmann, 2009) in order to deduce possible consequences for education and for their own school. Second, in order for participants to be able to initiate, carry out and evaluate change processes (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2006; Scharmer, 2009) at their own schools, themes that focus on school improvement are dealt with. During the programme, the participants are required to launch concrete projects at their schools, or to continue projects that are already running.
The aim of this programme was to support school principals and teachers to meet the challenges of everyday working life and to prepare them for school improvement projects (Brückel & Schildknecht 2011).
The concept of the programme introduced attempts to fulfil this aim by combining modules on theory and praxis. It is based on a framework (Lipowsky, 2010;) containing the following elements which are reconfirmed by Hattie (2013, p. 144ff):
- Active integration of participants: Teachers should not be seen primarily as receptors of further education, but as active designers of the learning process.
- Dissonance: Learning content effects change particularly when there exists a dissonance between expectations and convictions on the one hand and actual classroom practice on the other.
- Equal value of theory and practice: A balance between theory and practice is crucial. This can be achieved by connecting the various theoretical inputs directly to the teaching practice.
- Focus on practice: Learning is, on the one hand, an individual process. On the other, participants are members of a professional community and can thus ideally act as multipliers and disseminators.
- Duration: to achieve sustainable learning, further education programmes should be planned for the long term. The themes in further education need to be connected to school practice and participants should be given enough time to implement what they have learnt.
The entire design of the programme seeks to support the participants in moving from theoretical understanding to practical application. In doing so, the content and setting of the programme are coordinated in a way that fosters school improvement projects. The setting foresees that reflection (Gardner, 2009; Hickson, 2011) and knowledge transfer (Jäger, 2004) will be permanently stimulated within the programme.
Brückel, F. & Schildknecht, J. (2011). Education for the future: an International Cooperation Programme for Education Professionals. In Phillippe Masson, Kathrin Otrel-Cass & Vivienne Baumfeld, Miranda Pilo (ed.), (Re)thinking Partnership in Education. Lille: TheBookEdition, S. 19 - 29 Büro für arbeits- und sozialpolitische Studien (BASS) (2012), Strategieentwicklung Weiterbildungsangebote der PH Zürich. Analyse der Nachfrage nach Weiterbildungsangeboten von Lehrpersonen und Schulleitungen im Kanton, Zürich, unveröffentlichter Abschlussbericht. Gardner, F. (2009), “Affirming values: using critical reflection to explore meaning and professional practice,” Reflective Practice Vol.10 No. 2, pp. 179-190. Hargreaves, A. & Fink D. (2006). Sustainable Leadership, San Fransisco, Jossey-Bass. Hattie, J. (2013), Lernen sichtbar machen, Baltmannsweiler, Schneider. Heine, S. (2007), „Erstklassige Lehrer gesucht“, Weiterbildung, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 26-29. Hickson, H. (2011), "Critical reflection: reflecting on learning to be reflective", Reflective Practice Vol. 12 No. 6, pp. 829-839. Hurrelmann, K. (2009), „Die Lebenssituation der jungen Generation“, in GEW Hauptvorstand (Ed), Zukunft in die Schule holen. Lebensplanung, Arbeits- und Berufsorientierung. Tagungsdokumentation, Bielefeld, Bertelsmann, pp. 14-24. Jäger. M. (2004), Transfer in Schulentwicklungsprojekten, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozial-wissenschaften. Lipowsky, F. (2010), „Lernen im Beruf – Empirische Befunde zur Wirksamkeit von Lehrer“, in Müller, E., Eichenberger A., Lüders and Mayr, M., Lehrerinnen und Lehrer lernen. Konzepte und Befunde zur Lehrerfortbildung, Münster, Waxmann, pp. 51-70. Mayring, P. (2010), Techniken qualitativer Inhaltsanalyse. Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Grundlagen und Techniken, Weinheim, Beltz, pp. 48-109. Nehring, J. H. & Brien E. J. O (2012), "Strong agents and weak systems: University support for school level improvement", Journal for Educational Change, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 449–485. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) (2010), Trends Shaping Education, Paris, OECD Publications. Scharmer C. O. (2009), Theorie U – von der Zukunft her führen, Heidelberg, Carl Auer.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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