01 SES 05 A, Professional Learning
A recent report from the OECD (2012) stated the significant importance of improving equity and reducing school failure. Thus, it mentions social justice as being a concept paramount to establish in schools in order to fight the social inequalities. This objective aims at making sure that all students are treated in an equitable way and that their varied needs are met in order to ensure that their learning progresses.
In an effort to lead more students to succeed and to improve equity, certain schools redefined their method of functioning and rebuilt their culture to become organizations in which the members constantly learn, all the while questioning themselves in order to improve their teaching practices. This is in line with researchers who affirm that professional learning communities (PLC) have a positive influence in improving student learning (Harris, 2006; Hopkins & Reynolds, 2001; Hord & Sommers, 2008). The purpose of the PLC is to go beyond improving teachers' well being and professionalism, but to also exert a positive change for students and a significant impact on their success (DuFour & Eaker, 2004; Louis, 2006). It is also pertinent to determine how teachers progress while implementing PLC`s and how this affects school organisation. Our research question is formulated as follows: What kind of repercussions does this type of functioning have on school organization?
2. Professional Learning Communities
Even if a school constitutes a very pleasant community for the teachers and a place where all the students feel valued, it must ensure a certain pedagogical rigour so that each student can develop their full potential (Hord & Sommers, 2008; Leclerc & Moreau, 2011b; Schussler, 2003). Gathering a group of teachers to discuss pedagogical practices isn't sufficient to create a PLC. In schools that have taken on this type of functioning, teachers collectively pursue common goals to improve student success and assume a shared responsibility regarding targeted results (Eaker, DuFour & DuFour, 2004; Fullan, 2005; Hord, 1997, Leclerc, 2011 b; Schussler, 2003). In comparison to a more traditional school in which teachers perceive their classroom as their personal domain, the PLC ends isolation because of a structure that solicits collaboration and the willingness of all the interveners to focus on student success (DuFour, 2011).
In a PLC, there is a community, a group of individuals with common interests and shared values and in which there is an interdependence between individuals focusing on students' success. The teachers wish to continuously develop professionally and are eager to share their knowledge. There is presence of a learning project in which a priority field is targeted and where the improvement of the students lies at the heart of the questioning
(Dufour & Eaker, 2004; Roy & Hord, 2006). There is also a mutual involvement of all interveners towards the vision and the values chosen by the school where the success of the students is a priority.
Working in professional learning communities implies the development of competencies in teachers by favoring the exchange of experiences among colleagues. Each member of the team develops professionally by leaning on each other’s expertise, which thus creates a solid culture of sharing and continuing training (Hord & Sommers, 2008). The word ''learning'' between the words ''community" and ''professional" refers to the continued improvement of learning, not limited to teachers, but more so of students (Stoll, Bolam, McMahon, Wallace & Tomas, 2006) through the constant progression of pedagogical practices.
Eaker, R., DuFour, R. & DuFour, R. (2004). Premiers pas : Transformation culturelle de l’école en communauté d’apprentissage professionnelle. Bloomington, Indiana : National Education Service. Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: system thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, California : Corwin Press. Harris, A. (2006). Opening up the black box of leadership practice: taking a distributed leadership perspective. International studies in educational administration, 34(2), 37-45. Hord, S. M. (1997). Professional learning communities : Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, Texas : Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Hord, S. M. & Sommers, W. (2008). Leading Professional Learning Communities: Voices from Research and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California : Corwin Press. Leclerc M. (2012a). Communauté d’apprentissage professionnelle : Guide à l’intention des leaders scolaires. Québec, Québec : Les Presses de l’Université du Québec. Leclerc, M. (2012b). Quelles stratégies les directions d’école efficaces utilisent-elles pour influencer le personnel enseignant et favoriser l’apprentissage des élèves. Revue Connexion-Direction, Association des directions et des directions adjointes franco-ontariennes, 12, 19-21. Leclerc, M. (2011a). Diriger une école en la centrant sur la communauté d’apprentissage. Revue inDirect : les clés de la gestion scolaire, 19(1), 32-56. Leclerc, M. (2011b). La communauté d’apprentissage professionnelle : on en parle, mais qu’est-ce que c’est au juste? Vivre le primaire, 24(2), 28-29. Leclerc, M. & Moreau, A. C. (2011a). Communauté d’apprentissage professionnelle dans huit écoles inclusives. Éducation et francophonie, 39(2), 189-206. Leclerc, M. & Moreau, A. C. (2011b). Quelques conditions incontournables pour implanter une communauté d’apprentissage professionnelle. Vivre le primaire, 24(2), 44-47. Leclerc, M, Moreau, A. C. & Lépine, M. (2009, July). Using Professional Learning Communities to Improve Student Learning in Reading: Better understanding the Stages of Development. Communication présentée à la Conférence européenne sur la lecture (ERA), Braga. Louis, K. S. (2006). Changing the culture of schools: professional community, organisational learning and trust, Journal of school leadership, 16, 477-489. OECD (2012). Quelle est l’ampleur des inégalités de revenus dans le monde et comment l’éducation peut-elle aider à les réduire ? Indicatieurs de l’éducation à la loupe. http://www.oecd.org/fr/edu/50242971.pdf Roy, P. & Hord, S. M. (2006). It’s everywhere, but what is it? Professional learning communities. Journal of school leadership, 16, 490-501. Schussler, D. L. (2003). Schools as Learning Communities : Unpacking the Concept. Journal of School Leadership, 13, 498-528. Stoll, L., Bolam, R., McMahon, A., Wallace, M. & Thomas, S. (2006) Professional learning communities : A review of the literature. Journal of Educational Change, 7, 221-258.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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