01 SES 11 C, Teachers’ Beliefs and Innovation
Human relationship is one of the main needs within the life of human beings (Adler, 2004). While interpersonal relationships are the source of joy and fellowship, they can sometimes make individuals stressful and unhappy (Ng & Tong, 2013). Griffin (1986) proposes that deep personal relationships sustain a healthy life for people. A romantic relationship is a type of relations in which partners experience love and affection via close ties and they bring positive and negative features of their characteristics to the relationship (Huston, 2009). Forgiveness, which is a process of accepting negative feelings and changing them with the positive one, is very beneficial because it helps individuals to live in a harmony in social context (Roberts, 1995). Individuals are prone to forgive significant others who are socially closer rather than the others in socially distant to them (Wenzel & Okimoto, 2012). Rotter (2001) introduces that consciousness of all personal experiences, religional beliefs, culture, gender and social dimensions of the individual affects forgiveness. In addition, forgiveness can show some differences according to cognitive distortions of an individual experienced a negative event (e.g. Braithwaite, Fincham, & Lambert, 2009; Bugay & Demir, 2011). Cognitive approach focuses on how the individual interprets reality in the relationship and according to cognitive behavioral approach, individuals have some unrealistic and nonfunctional believes about own, others and life. These beliefs, the interpretations made in the relationship, and meanings attributed to the relationship affect relationships, emotions and behaviors of the individuals and the individual behave in dysfunctional way to the partner (Epstein, 1986; Hamamcı, 2002). The empirical studies show that forgiveness interventions decrease cognitive distortions within a relationship and this leads to an increase in marital satisfaction (Navidian & Bahari, 2013). This shows that cognitive components are essential parts of forgiveness process. The purpose of the present study is to find out the relationship between cognitive distortions in predicting forgiveness in romantic relationships of college students. The present study aims at increasing the attention to the forgiveness issue in romantic relationships in early ages and the results of the study is beneficial for counselors working with college students since young adults mostly have difficulty in forgiving wrong behaviors of their couples after the wrong behaviors of their family members (Bugay & Demir, 2011). The study is significant to support college students' psychological development. The present study explores this question:
What is the relationship between interpersonal cognitive distortions (interpersonal rejection, unrealistic relationship expectation, and interpersonal misperception) in predicting forgiveness (forgiveness of self, forgiveness of others, and forgiveness of situations) of college students having a romantic relationship?
Adler, A. (2004). Yaşamın anlamı ve amacı. (Sipal, K.,Trans.) (7th Ed.). Istanbul: Say Publication. (Original work published 1985). Braithwaite, S., Fincham, F.D. & Lambert, N. (2009). Hurt and psychological health in close relationships. In A. Vangelisti (Ed.), Feeling Hurt in Close Relationships (376-399). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bugay, A., Demir, A. (2011). Hataya ilişkin özelliklerin başkalarını affetmeyi yordaması. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(35), 8-17. Epstein, N. (1986). Cognitive marital therapy: multi-level assessment and intervention. Journal of Rational-Emotive Therapy, 1(4), 68-81. Griffin, J. (1986). Well-being. Oxford, England: Clarendon. Hamamcı, Z. (2002). Bilissel davranısçıl yaklasımla bütünlestirilmis psiko-dramanın üniversite öğrencilerinin kisilerarası iliskilerle ilgili bilissel çarpıtmaların ve temel inançlar üzerine etkisi. Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, Ankara University, Ankara. Hamamcı, Z. & Büyüköztürk, S. (2004). The interpersonal cognitive distortions scale: Development and psychometric characteristics. Psychological Reports, 95, 291-303. Huston, T. L. (2009). What’s love got to do with it? Why some marriages succeed and others fail. Personal Relationships, 16, 301–327. Navidian, A. & Bahari, F. (2013). The impact of mixed, hope and forgiveness-focused marital counseling on interpersonal cognitive distortions of couples filing for divorce. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 1-9, doi: 10.1111/jpm.12058. Ng, A.S. &. Tong, E.M.W. (2013). The relation between implicit theories of personality and forgiveness. Personal Relationships, 20, 479–494. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2012.01419.x Roberts, R. C. (1995). Forgivingness. American Philosophical Quarterly, 32, 289–301. Rotter, J. C. (2001). Letting go: Forgiveness in counseling. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 9, 174–177. Thompson, L. Y., Snyder, C. R., Hoffman, L., Michael, S. T., Rasmussen, H. N. & Billings, L. S. (2005). Dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations. Journal of Personality, 73, 313-359. Wenzel, M. & Okimoto, T.G. (2012). The varying meaning of forgiveness: Relationship closeness moderates how forgiveness affects feelings of justice. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 420–431. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1850
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