ERG SES D 08, Citizenship and Education
This study investigates notions of socially just global citizenship in different educational contexts: Europe and South Korea. The Charter on Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education was released by the Council of Europe in 2010 (CE, 2010). An idealised notion of European citizenship which emphasizes people’s recognition and respect for diversity and human rights beyond cultural and territorial boundaries (Osler, 2012) is embedded in this document. In December 2009, a reformed national curriculum was introduced by the South Korean Government, in which an idealized notion of global citizenship was newly added to the educational agenda: namely, “a global-minded person who communicates with global society and participates in communities with care and sharing” (KICE, 2009, p. 21). Despite the stress on an idealized notion of global citizenship at a macro level (EU), there is insufficient discussion about how the notion of global citizenship can be differently interpreted by teachers and students at the micro-level (Philippou, Keating, & Ortloff, 2009). The study draws the cues from the investigation of school geography professionals’ interpretations of global citizenship in South Korea, through which some implications for socially just global citizenship in terms of a European dimension are provided. In this regard, my main research question is: what are the geography teachers’, textbook authors’ and textbook inspectors’ perceptions and experiences regarding global citizenship in the South Korean Geography curriculum?
The investigation engages two main theoretical frameworks: postcolonial and post-structural global citizenship. Peters, Britton, and Blee (2008) argue that the notion of global citizenship is not a given, but a contested concept. This study found that the notion of global citizenship is differently represented in the classroom by different teachers using the same policy and textbook. In this regard, the study examines critically various discourses of global citizenship: modern (neo-liberal and cosmopolitan) and progressive (ethical, postcolonial and post-structural). Advocating the latter and drawing on the work of various researchers (Biesta, 2009; Jazeel, 2012; Kothari, 2014; Said, 1978), the study investigates how the notion of global citizenship in the geography curriculum is slanted towards the ideologies of some interest groups and how geography professionals understand and organize the curriculum accordingly.
Biesta, G. (2009). What Kind of Citizenship for European Higher Education? Beyond the Competent Active Citizen. European Educational Research Journal, 8(2), 146. doi: 10.2304/eerj.2009.8.2.146 Council of Europe (2010). Charter on Education for Democratic Citizenshi[ and Human Rights Education Recommendation CM/REC (2010)7 and explanatory memorandum. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. Jazeel, T. (2012). Postcolonialism: Orientalism and the geographical imagination. Geography, 97, 4-11. KICE. (2009). Korean National Curriculum: An introduction to Primary and Secondary Education. Seoul: Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Kothari, U. (2014). Trade, consumption and development alliances: The historical legacy of the Empire Marketing Board poster campaign. Third World Quarterly Osler, A. (2012). Citizenship Education in Europe. In J. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education (Vol. 1, pp. 375-378). London: Sage. Peters, M., Britton, A., & Blee, H. (2008). Global Citizenship Education: Philosophy, Theory and Pedagogy. Taipei: Sense Publishers. Philippou, S., Keating, A., & Ortloff, D. H. (2009). Citizenship education curricula: comparing the multiple meanings of supra-national citizenship in Europe and beyond. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(2), 291-299. doi: 10.1080/00220270802475015 Said, E. (1978). Orientalism (1st Vintage Books ed. ed.). New York: Vintage Books. Wellington, J. (2000). Educational research : contemporary issues and practical approaches. London: Continuum. Winter, C. (2011). Curriculum knowledge and justice: content, competency and concept. The Curriculum Journal, 22(3), 337-364.
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