ERG SES H 08, Education and Teachers' Practice
Inclusive Teaching Strategies
What do teachers think about and how do they practice inclusion and leadership in the classroom?
How can inclusive teaching strategies be developed?
Objective and Conceptual/ Theoretical framework:
This paper deals with the way teachers think about and work with inclusion and their leadership in the classroom and how they see the relationships between their curricular choices and pupil participation.
Research shows that teachers’ choices are crucial for the pupils’ outcome (Dufour, 2011; Hattie, 2009; Helmke, 2013; Higins et. al, 2007; Nordenbo et. al, 2008). The assumption underlying the research is that to a large extent inclusive teaching strategies depend on an increased focus on the choices made by the teachers before, during and after their teaching, and that a conscious framing and development of these choices will lead to an increased pupil participation and inclusion.
Focus on and development of the teachers’ professional capital may be one of the crucial answers to many of the challenges and dilemmas teachers face (Hargreaves and Fullan, 2012; Hord 1997). Based on that underlying assumption, the project is designed as a co-research project between me as a doctoral student and three teacher teams inquiring into and improving the teachers own daily practice based on what research tells us about inclusive teaching strategies.
The project draws upon a social constructivist perspective on how practice and knowledge are developed and has a interactionist perspective (Järvinen & Mik-Meyer 2005), in which knowledge and being are understood and constructed in complex and situated processes and where the smallest unit of analysis is the relation and situation (Charmaz 2009; Clarke 2005, 2009; Haraway 1988).
This theoritical framework also has implications for the projects ontological and epistemological position regarding understandings and analysis of issues concerning inclusion and inclusive teaching strategies. Pupil participation - or non-participation - is to a large extent seen contextual and relational.
Booth & Ainscow (2011) ask in the Index of Inclusion central questions which can support a social constructionist analysis of the teachers’ inclusive practice and teaching strategies:
- What barriers to learning and participation arise within the school and its communities?
- Who experiences barriers to learning and participation?
- How can barriers to learning and participation be minimized?
- How can additional resources to support learning and participation be mobilized?
Outline of presentation at ECER:
At the ECER conference the presentation shortly introduces the research design and subsequently focuses on two models drawn upon research reviews on inclusion and effective teaching strategies and the projects’ own data.
The first model introduces four central dimensions in inclusive teaching strategies: framing dimensions, relational dimensions, curricular dimension and organizational dimensions. Inspired by Index of Inclusion (Booth and Ainscow, 2011) each heading has underlying central questions to guide the teachers’ inquiry and focus.
The other model presented shows the different positions teachers seem to undertake in their work with inclusive teaching strategies. The purpose with the model is to clarify how different positions and views on practice also make different focal point and understandings of ‘the problem’. The argument for showing and discussing these different positions is that a greater awareness of these positions can facilitate the teachers’ capacity building regarding inclusive teaching strategies.
Booth, T. og M. Ainscow (2011). Index for inclusion. Bristol, UK: CSIE. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory. London: SAGE. Charmaz, K. (2009). Shifting the Grounds. I J. M. Marose, Developing Grounded Theory - the Second Generation (s. 127-194). Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, inc. Clarke, A. (2005). Situational Analysis - Grounded Theory After the Postmodern Turn. London: SAGE. Dufour, R. &. (2011). Leaders of Learning - how District, School, and Classroom Leaders Improve Student Achievement. Bloomington, USA: Solution Tree Press. Haraway, D. (Vol 14, No 3. 1988). Situated Knowledges: the Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective. Feminist Studies, s. 575-599. Hargreaves, A. og M. Fullan. (2012). Professional Capital - Transforming Teaching in Every School. New York: Routledge. Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning - a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge. Helmke, A. (2013). Undervisningskvalitet og lærerprofessionalitet. Frederikshavn: Dafolo. Higgins S, B. V. (2007). Learning skills and the development of learning capabilities, report 1501R. I Research Evidence in Education Library. England, London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. Hiim, H. (2010). Pedagogisk Aksjonsforskning - tilnærminger, eksempler og kunnskapsfilosofisk grundlag. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk. Hord, S. M. (1997). Professional Learning Communities: communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement. Austin, Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Järvinen, M. &.-M. (2005). Kvalitative metoder i et interaktionistisk perspektiv. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag. Kirkeby, O. F. (2002). Abduktion. I H. Andersen, Introduktion til Videnskabsteori og metodelære (s. 122-152). Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur. Lewin, K. (1948). Action Research and Minority Problems. I K. Lewin, Resolving Social Conflicts (s. 201-216). London: Harper & Row. Marzano, R. m.fl. (2003). Classroom Management the works - Research- based Stretegies for Every Teacher. Alexandria, USA: ASCD. Mitchell, D. (2008). What Really Works in Special and Inclusive Education. London: Routledge. Morse, J. M. (2009). Developing Grounded Theory - The Second Generation. I J. M. Morse, Developing Grounded Theory - The Second Generation (s. 13-21). Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, Inc. Nordenbo, S. E. (2008). Lærerkompetanser og elevers læring i barnehage og skole. København: DPU. Sheehy K, R. J. (2009). A systematic review of whole class, subject- based pedagogies with reported outcomes for the academic and social inclusion of pupils with special educational needs, 1701. I Research Evidence in Education Library. England, London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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