ERG SES G 05, Vocational Training and Education
The topic of this study is non-formal vocational training.
- How is non-formal vocational training carried out towards life skills improvement in Maputo?
- How to improve the practice in these prgrammes?
- To discuss the practices and experiences of educators in non-formal vocational training programmes developed in Maputo,
- To explore ideas for programme improvement..
To discuss about non-formal education (NFE) it seems important to present the main difference between this approach of education and formal education. Combs & Ahmed (1974, p.8) characterise forma education as " highly institutionalised chronologicaly graded and hierarchically structured system..." In this point of view, NFE is opposed to formal education. Different countries interpreted NFE in their own way, for instance, for some it meant every educational programme provided by the Ministry of Education apart from the schools and colleges; for others it meant educational programmes provided by non-govermental agencies (Kamil, 2007)
Due to the adaptability to the learners' needs, NFE is defined as "any organized systematic educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular subgroup of population" (Comb &Ahmed, 1974, p.35). NFE is a flexible approach to education, " its theory questions the adequacy of learning that is rigidly organized..." (Tuijnman, 1996 p.22)
In the context of globalisation and rapid social economic and technological changes NFE is gaining an important space in the field of education and development. In developing countries NFE education is in general approache in the perspective of social inclusion and poverty reduction, while in developed countries NFE in one hand is a source that allow people to cope with the new demands in the very competitive and instable world in other hand it is a way of promotion of lifelong learning towards a learning society.
The linkage between the education programme and the learners' needs is the key issue for the relevance of the programme because learners, in particular adult learners, are motivated ti learn when they percieve possible immediate application of knowledge in their real life-this is the principle of orientation to learn, according to knowles (1990).. NFE can be apowerful strategy to adress a set of skills to the participants enabling them to translate these skills into practice in their daily life.
"Life skills enable people to translate knowledge, attitudes and values into actual abilities..." Ganesh & Johnson, 2010 p.1. Life skills is a mix of knowledge, behavior, attitudes and values and possession of some skills and know-how to reach an aim. The imperative of life skills development among youth and adults contribute greatly in improvement of adult learning particularly in approach of NFE.. This is among other aspects, linked to the pedagogical issues of teaching/training. Teacher centred learning promotes passivity and dependence on human being.
In this perspective, Freire (1998) rejected banking education in which the educators transfer information to the passive learners. Freire in his turn suggested the dialogical approach, which can improve learners' consciousness, leadind them to their autonomy. According to Zeelen et al (2013 p.24) " conscientization empowerment and sel-relience are essential to overcome defferent forms of exclusion."
Combs, P.H. & Ahmed (1974) Attacking Rural Poverty. How non-formal Education can help. A research report for the World Bank prepared by the International Council for Educational Development. Baltimore/London:The John Hopkins University Press. Denscombe, M. (2005) The Good Research Guide: For small-scale social research projects, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Freire, P.(1993) Pedagogy of the Opressed. New rev.20th –Anniversary ed. New York: Continuum Ganesh, E.& Johnson N. (2010) Life Skills of College Students in Puducherry Region. Bilingual Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol-3 Issue-1 ISSN 2249-9180 Kamil, M. (2007) Looking again at Non-Formal and Informal Education Towards a New Paradigm. Centre for Research in International Cooperation in Educational Development. University of Tsukuba Knowles, M. (1990) The Adult learner: A Neglected Species: fourth edition, London: Gulf Publishing Company Ritchie, J. & Lewis, J.(2008) Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, SAGE Publication Singh, M. (2005) Meeting Basic Learning Needs in the Informal Sector. Integrating Education and Training for decent work, Empowerment and Citizenship. Technical and Vocational Education and Training Series. UNEVOC/UNESCO Tuijnman, A. (1996) International Encyclopedia of Adult Education and Training, second Edition, Paris, OECD. UNESCO (2005) Education For All: The Quality Imperative. EFA Global Monitoring Report. Zeelen, J. Rampedi, M. & Van der Linder, J. (2013) Grounding Adult Education Research in Rural Areas Reflections on the Development of a Research Prgramme at the University of Limpopo in South Africa- Adult Education Quarterly. Vol. 64 (1) 20-38
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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