ERG SES C 06, Assessment and Education
Speech error correction and giving feedback is a controversial issue in second language learning and there are some complexities about whether to use error correction and feedback or not and if speech error correction is necessary, when or how to correct speech errors of students in language classroom. So, this topic has always caused complex questions in the teachers’ minds in the teaching process. (Salikin, 2001, pp. 28) According to research on error correction, there is not a common idea on the most effective method of error correction. According to observations, it is clear that language learners are eager to be corrected. However, some methods are against the direct error correction. In normal school environments, native speakers only correct the global errors of the non-native speakers, and they do not interrupt their communication. (Brown, 2000, pp.237-238 ) According to observations, error correction may be useful for many learners, but it may not always be seen as a powerful technique for every language learner and in any classroom environment. (BRAC University Journal, Vol. II, No. 1, 2005, pp. 80-81) It is asserted that language learners have the need of feedback in speaking in order to develop students’ performance especially in pronunciation and it is effective to lead the students to think on their errors themselves as a group or pair and get them to check their own performance by observation. (Case, 2008) Error correction in speaking is stimulating and complicated issue to a great extent because of the individual differences such as situations, vocabulary knowledge, and pronunciation as effective items in speaking. There are many things that should be definitely taken into consideration such as students’ language level, what kinds of errors to be corrected, and how to correct such errors. It is asserted that errors in speaking are quite normal and unavoidable; therefore, a proper method should be developed and used in error correction. Error correction in spoken language requires careful and effective treatment because of the fact that each learner may react to the teacher’s feedback in a different way. One of the main aims of the speaking classroom is to get the students to learn and practice the target language in a proper and correct way. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should behave carefully and selectively in speech error correction. (Tedjaatmadja & Wijaya, 2004) Students support the error correction which can be understood from their practice and routines. Teachers’ methods are under the influence of this concept. Some methods suggest that direct error correction should not be made. Native speakers pay attention only to global errors and they do not prefer immediate and direct correction as they do not want to interrupt in communication. It states that there are many possible conditions when it is recommended that teachers should lead to the kinds of errors that students make. Bailey (1985) says in his study that there should be a balance between accuracy and fluency of communicative language in the treatment of error correction. (Haluskova, 2008) It is argued that excessive negative cognitive feedback, which means frequent interruptions and corrections, may get the student to avoid communication. On the other hand, excessive positive cognitive feedback, which means ignoring the errors to some extent, may reinforce the speech errors, and may cause fossilization of such errors. So, there should be a balance while giving feedback. (Brown, 2001, pp. 288-293)
In this research project, I will try to answer the following questions:
1-What is the importance of speech error correction and feedback in second language learning?
2-When and how speech errors should be corrected?
3-What are some basic criteria in error correction and giving feedback in speaking?
REFERENCES Brown, D. H. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. San Francisco: State University Press. Brown, D. H. (2001). Teaching Speaking. In D. H. Brown, Teaching by Principles: An Integrative Approach to Language Pedagogy. (pp. 267-296). New York: Longman. Case, A. (2008). Improving Your Students’ Speaking Skills. Retrieved May, 19, 2009, from www.oup.com/eltnew/local/es/odm/odm_secondary/20314749?cc=es - 25k – Choudhury, S. ( 2005). Interaction in Second Language Classrooms. BRAC University Journal, Vol. II, No. 1, pp. 80-81. Haluskova, A. (2008). Preserving Students´ Motivation when Improving Oral Skills in the Foreign Language Classroom. Retrieved May, 15, 2009, from www.hltmag. co.uk /oct08 /mart03.rtf Salikin, H. (2001, January). Correcting Errors in the Communicative Speaking Class. Retrieved May, 21, 2009, from http: // www.unej.ac.id/fakultas /sastra/sastra_en/jurnal/vol-01/hairus.pdf Tedjaatmadja, H. M, & Wijaya, H. P. S ( 2004). Error Correction in Speaking 1 Class for Adult Learners in Petra Christian University. Retrieved May, 18, 2009, from http://fportfolio.petra.ac.id/user_files/04-036/paper-%20error%20correction%20in %20Speaking%201%20(final%20paper).doc
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