ERG SES D 10, Mobility and Education
The new European social configurations, caused by migration, reveal aspects of complexity that could be identified as new educational and social challenges. The "dilemma of difference" (Terzi, 2008) that concerns people with disabilities hailing from foreign countries is an emergent element in European nations, in particular regarding the immigrant children in each scholastic orders, so this widespread issue needs to be more examined within the field of educational research . In order to explore this topic in Italian educational background it’s been realized an empirical research, titled “Like butterfly wings. Study and research about children with disability, offspring of migrants”, between 2012 and 2013 involving 8 state schools (primary and preschool) of Vignola, a city in northern Italy. The sample of research, here presented, was composed by 22 teachers (class teachers and support teachers), 13 working at preschool and 9 at primary school; A part of research, not here presented, included into sample 10 scholastic educators, 4 families, the school head and a child neuropsychiatric, all of them belonging to the research background.
Starting from the results of a statistic inquiry on disabled students, promoted by Italian Ministry of Education and realized in 2009-2010, it came to light that the 7% of over 200.000 students with disabilities attending Italian schools, respectively 15.000, hails from foreign countries. Is critical to underline that this several increasing presence doesn’t consider the children with learning difficulties or social and economic disadvantage but only whom have a medical or neuropsychiatric diagnosis of disability; if both them could be included into the inquiry the number will surely increase.
The main research questions were related to the topic’s exploration, in particular relatively to teachers’ perception about the dual dilemma of difference (disability and cultural diversity). At the same time this research would contribute to expand the knowledge on this matter, since the lack of empirical or theoretical study that are increasing only of late in Italy.
The aims of this part of research were: to define how many children with disabilities (3-11 age), having both parents hailing from a foreign country, were attending state primary school and preschool in the background chosen; explore if the cultural dimension affects someway the disability factor into teachers’ perception; identify which elements of resource or disadvantage were relevant to the teachers; to discover which critical factors/strategies are influent to the inclusion.
Since there are few literature references about this specific topic the main theoretical mention was influenced by M. R. Moro (Moro 1994-2002-2008-2012), an ethno-psychiatrist that has studied this issue in French background through an complementary and transcultural approach. In regard to define the conceptual framing have been relevant most recent Italian researches (Caldin 2012; Goussot 2011; Martinazzoli 2013) that have examined the subject within the educational framework. The pedagogical approach that have guided this research, combines two typical educational field: Special Pedagogy and Intercultural Pedagogy. This crossed approach tries to give a complementary view on the subject, considering both the disability factors and the cultural elements that are strictly connected and couldn’t be evaluate separately in this case.The theoretical framework hold specific descriptive categories outlined taking account of the principal complexity elements: cultural dimension, migration, social inclusion, linguistic and comunicative dimension, functioning and disability, dual diversity.
REFERENCES – Associazione Treelle, Caritas Italiana, Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, Gli alunni con disabilità nella scuola italiana: bilancio e proposte, Erickson, 2011 Booth T., Ainscow M., Index for Inclusion, developing learning and participation in school, CSIE, UK, 2011 Caldin R. (a cura di), Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti, approcci culturali, questioni educative, prospettive inclusive, Liguori Editore, Napoli, 2012 Callari Galli M., Cerutti M., Pievani T., Pensare la diversità, Meltemi, Roma, 2000 Canevaro A., Le logiche del confine e del sentiero, una pedagogia dell’inclusione (per tutti, disabili inclusi), Erickson, Trento, 2006 Devereux G., Basic problems of ethno-psychiatry, University of Chicago Press, 1980 European Agency For Special Needs and Inclusive Education, Multiculural diversity and special needs education, Odense, Denmark, 2009 Eurostat, Population and social condition, Citizens of European countries account for the majority of the foreign population in EU-27 in 2008 Eurostat, Foreign citizens made up 6.5% of the EU-27 population in 2010, New relase, July 2011. Eurydice, Integrating immigrant children into schools in Europe, Bruxelles, 2004 Goussot A., Bambini stranieri con bisogni speciali. Saggio di antropologia pedagogica, Aracne editrice, Roma, 2011 Martinazzoli C., Due volte speciali, quando gli alunni con disabilità provengono da contesti migratori, Franco Angeli, Milano, 2012 Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca, L’integrazione scolastica degli alunni con disabilità nel sistema nazionale di istruzione, dati statistici A.S. 2009-2010. Morin E., Le sept savoirs necessaires à l’éducation du futur, Seuil, 2000 Moro M.R., Parents en exil. Psychopathologie et migrations. Paris: P.U.F.; 1994 Moro M.R. Enfants d’ici venus d’ailleurs. Naître et grandir en France. Paris : La Découverte ; 2002 Moro M.R., Maternità e amore. Quello di cui hanno bisogno i bambini per crescere bene qui e altrove, saggi Frassinelli, Milano, 2008 Moro M.R, Enfants de l’immigration, une chance pour l’ecole, Editions Baiard, 2012 Sayad A., La double absence. Des illusions de l'émigré aux souffrances de l'immigré. Paris, Seuil, 1999 Santi, M. & Ghedin, E. (2012) Evaluating the commitment toward inclusion: a multidimensional Repertoire. Giornale Italiano della Ricerca, anno V, , 99-111
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