ERG SES D 15, Attitudes and Education
General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework
The notion of inclusion is not a simple matter to define. It probably will mean different things to different people on different occasions. In the current school political debate, in Scandinavia and other European countries, the term “inclusive education” has gained a significant position that also might implicate diverse meanings. The awareness of the inclusive opinion partly comes from critical reflections about how schools are handling the increasing number of pupils in need of special educational support. A probable difficulty may be the limited pedagogical arrangements, practiced to resolve the challenging question, concerning teaching in classrooms with a large diversity amongst pupils. Consequently some pupils always remain included while others become occasionally or always excluded from the mainstream classroom. In the end, inclusive education may also be related to a democratic point of view. All children and youngsters should have the same opportunities and rights to take part of the school education and environment in equal terms. Skidmore (2004) means that “the understanding of how students come to have difficulties in learning by drawing attention to the role of school- and classroom-level variables – factors which lie within the power of educators to affect” (p. 8), has an important meaning. This study, integrated in a PHD - dissertation, is part of a national project in Sweden (Ifous), where twelve municipalities participate, dealing with school improvement and development of inclusive education in compulsory schools. The tentative aim, of the study, is to contribute with deeper knowledge about teachers’ attitudes to inclusion and their capability to create opportunities that promote inclusive education in the mainstream classroom.
The research questions ask what the empirical data material (questionnaire and action research) tell about mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion and which key factors, they think, might facilitate respective aggravate the formation of an inclusive educational process in the classroom.
The principal objective of the research is to examine influences of inclusive and exclusive practices related to teachers’ professional work. Democratic and pedagogy reasons together with school improvement reformations and political economic issues should indicate a need to a deeper understanding of teacher’s attitudes to inclusion for a sustainability professional practice.
The theoretical framework consists of equivalents and complementary approaches among theories of inclusion that proceed from allowing classroom climate, all pupils’ participation and contribution during lessons, exchange of social and knowledge learning, fellowship in the classroom and consideration for different learning conditions (Haug, 2012, Farrell, 2004). Teachers’ dilemma, regarding the applying of inclusive or exclusive teaching practices, might furthermore have a fundamental attitude to two forms of pedagogical interpretation; the “discourse of deviance” and the “discourse of inclusion” (Skidmore, 2004). The study combines accordingly theories of inclusion and the concept of professional development and change. The model of transformative profession (Sachs, 2000) will also be concerned.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design. Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks: SAGE. Farrell, P. (2004). Making Inclusion a Reality for All. School Psychology International.25:5. http://spi.sagepub.com Haug, P. (2012). Har vi ein skulle for alla? I T. Barow & D. Östlund (red). Bildning för alla. En pedagogisk utmaning (s.85-94). Högskolan Kristianstad. Sachs, J. (2000). The activist professional. Journal of Educational Change 1: 77-95. Skidmore, D. (2004). Inclusion: the dynamic of school development. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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