11 SES 05 B, External and Internal Evaluation of Educational Effectiveness
The European Foundation Quality Management Excellence Model (further referred as EFQM) is the most popular quality tool in Europe used by more than 30,000 organisations from different fields (e.g. within private as well as public sector, including higher education institutions, further HEI’s) to improve organisation`s performance. For example, in different contexts EFQM has been used as a self-assessment tool, a way to benchmark with other organisations and/or as a guide to identify areas of improvement. The implementation of the EFQM enables to reach a holistic view about an institution’s functions, as well as its strengths and weaknesses, which in turn allow identifying bottlenecks and therefore improve the organisation’s processes. In order to improve the results of an organisation, self-assessment and continuous improvement must be approached in a systematic and sustainable way.
When implementing the EFQM it is important to assure the whole organisation staff involvement. This allows enhancing employees’ awareness of the importance of quality, raises understanding and awareness of quality-related issues, improves organisation`s results, promotes understanding about the importance of self-assessment. Participation in implementation process also helps to develop organisational learning within the organisation, giving the organisation feedback on its strengths and areas for improvement (Ritchie and Dale 2000, Dale 2003, Leonard and McAdam 2003b, Farana 2007). In sum, to get positive results and implement EFQM successfully, commitment of the organisation's top management, leadership and teamwork is required (Tari 2010, Oakland 2003).
Despite the model that is going to be used difficulties arise so it is important to understand the areas that need to be addressed at early stage of implementation. According to former studies main highlighted difficulties could be; large variation in assessment procedures within the organization, (accreditation, auditing, etc.) (Martinez-Lorente et al. 2000); lack of staff commitment, time consumed in the process, not knowing where to start, lack of resources, support by the quality unit, and lack of commitment by the management (Ritchie and Dale 2000, Osseo-Asare and Longbottom 2002). In addition, the model is incomprehensible at first sight (albeit in philosophy but not in methods or techniques used), and prior knowledge as well as deliberate strategy required for its successful implementation is needed; (Osseo-Asare and Longbottom 2002). Moreover, if no framework for strategic quality management exists, it is difficult to develop a beneficial and functional quality assurance system (Leonard and McAdam 2003a). Stringham (2004) emphasised that organisational quality management should be a lifestyle that is connected to organisational culture and this starts with the management taking the lead.
In sum, it could be concluded/summarised that the focus of the EFQM model implementation should not be achieving high organisational performance score, but how the implementation process is executed. Therefore, today the questions is not whether the EFQM should be implemented as a base of to higher education quality management model, but how the implementation is executed from the very beginning and what benefits and difficulties are associated with the implementation process.
Following this line of thought, the aim of this presentation is to compare the benefits and difficulties that were risen from the usage of EFQM model among 17 HEI’s in Estonia. Based on the case study methodology, the paper shows that despite the size of organization, benefits and difficulties can be the same, but it’s influence can be different, so it is important to take the size of HEIs into account. The results of present study will be presented through the feedback of participating institutions team and assessor on the implementation process of EFQM.
1. Dale, B. (2003). Managing Quality (4th ed.), UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oxford. 2. Farana, R. (2007). The Excellence System Application in Higher Education. Coimbra. International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEE). 3. Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (Eds.). (2010). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Retrieved from http://books.google.ee/books?id=b2ujHWrRpVQC&pg=PA607&lpg=PA607&dq=Johnson,+B.+and+Christensen,+L.&source=bl&ots=ip23e37caZ&sig=iRmk-8EIyhy0jAXU0RvZ2vxNeJg&hl=et&ei=q7qZTfiPH9GeOuStnLQH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFUQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Johnson%2C%20B.%20and%20Christensen%2C%20L.&f=false 4. Leonard, D., McAdam R. (2003)a. An evaluative framework for TQM dynamics in organizations. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(6), pp. 652-677. 5. Leonard D., McAdam, R. (2003)b. Impacting organizational learning: the training and experiences of quality award examiners and assessor. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(1), pp. 16-21. 6. Ritchie, L., Dale, B.G. (2000). Self-assessment using the business excellence model: a study of practice and process.. International Journal of Production Economics, 66(3), pp. 241-254. 7. Martinez-Lorente, A.R., Dewhurst, F.W., Gallego-Rodriguez, A. (2000). Relating TQM, marketing and business performance: an exploratory study. International Journal of Production Research, 38(14), pp. 3227-3246. 8. Oakland, J.S. (2003). Total Quality Management, text with cases (3rd ed.),. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Oxford pp. 483. 9. Osseo-Asare, E., Longbottom, D. (2002). The need for education and training in the use of the EFQM model for quality management in UK higher education institutions. Quality Assurance in Education, 10(1), pp. 26–36. 10. Ritchie, L., Dale, B.G. (2000). Self-assessment using the business excellence model: a study of practice and process. International Journal of Production Economics, 66(3), pp. 241-254. 11. Stringham, S. H. (2004). Does quality management work in the public sector. Public Administration and Management: An Interactive Journal, 9(1), pp. 182-211. 12. Tari, J. J. (2010). Self-assessment processes: The importance of follow-up for success. Quality Assurance in Education: An International Perspective, 18(1), 19-33. 13. Tari, J. J., & Madeleine, C. (2010). The EFQM self-assessment processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan. Online Submission, US-China Education Review,7(7), 65-74. 14. Yin, R.K. (2009). Case Study Research. Design and Methods (4th ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.
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