22 SES 03 C, Academic Work and Professional Development
A research dealing with the ethical concerns of College Teachers* (Gohier, Jutras, Desautels, SSHRC** grant 2006-2010) showed among other results, that of all the strategies used to resolve dilemmas identified by these teachers, discussion with different stakeholders is at the forefront, with discussions with their teacher-colleagues as being most important. Nevertheless teachers stress the difficulty of exchanges with their colleagues taking into account the complex nature of the ethical questions (Gohier et al, 2010a, 2010b). The results led to the examination of the development process of ethical reflection in College Teachers, as this process has not yet been documented in research (Harvey, 2002), (Gohier, Jutras, Desautels, SSHRC grant 2010-2013). In order to address this question, two groups of college teachers from the Montreal and the Quebec City regions in Canada participated in a collaborative research respectively in 2011-2012 for the Montreal region and in 2012-2013 for the region of Quebec City. In each region, 6 meetings per year were held. This research subscribes to the concept of ethical reflection, which does not exclude the dimension of moral education in the teaching process (Ricoeur, 1991, Campbell, 2008) and furthermore also subscribes to the applied ethics current which allows the actors to express themselves, in this case the actors from the college teaching profession. To deal with the development of ethical reflection, collaborative research has been privileged because knowledge related to the research is co-constructed by the researchers and the practitioners. Its purpose is twofold: research and training, by promoting the professional development of the participants.
The main research question and objectives are:
Question :How does ethical reflection develop in college level teachers?
1. Describe the development process of ethical reflection in college level teachers in the French and English systems
2. Identify the critical stages in this development
3. Identify the ethical concerns raised during ethical reflection situations
This paper will analyse the data from the two phases of the research in order to shed light on the modus operandi that was agreed upon by the participants, the ethical questions that were addressed, as well as the dynamics and the development steps of ethical reflection. Among other things, it will show that the case studies of situations involving ethical questions proposed by the participants are the main modus operandi that they chose in order to generate reflection and discussion on ethical issues. Furthermore, the dynamics that prevailed during these exchanges involve several means of interaction. The participation in collaborative research could enhance professional development.
*College Level or CEGEP Teachers refers to Post-secondary education exclusive to Quebec in Canada. In order to be admitted to university in Quebec, a secondary school graduate must first obtain a CEGEP diploma. CEGEP students typically begin college between 17 and 19 years of age.
**Social Sciences And Humanities Research Council of Canada
Bray, J .N., Lee,J., Smith, L.L., Yorks, L. (Eds). (2000). Collaborative inquiry in practice : Action, reflection, and making meaning. Thousand Oaks : Sage. Campbell, E. (2008). The Ethics of Teaching as a Moral Profession. Curriculum Inquiry, 38(4), 357-385. Desgagné, S. (2001). La recherche collaborative : une nouvelle dynamique de recherche en éducation.Dans M. Anadon (Dir.). Nouvelles dynamiques de recherche en éducation (p.51-76). Québec : LesPresses de l’Université Laval. Desgagné, S., Bednarz, N. (2005). Médiation entre recherche et pratique en éducation : faire de la recherche « avec » plutôt que « sur » les praticiens. Revue des sciences de l’éducation, 31(2),245258. Bass. Gohier, C., Desautels, L., Joly, J., Jutras, F., Ntebutse, J.G. (2010a). Les préoccupations éthiques des enseignants de l 'ordre collégial: une enquête en ligne. Revue des sciences de l'éducation de McGill, 45(3), automne, [en ligne] http://mje.mcgill.ca/index.php/MJE/article/view/6359/6728. Gohier, C., Desautels, L., Jutras, F. (2010b). Les préoccupations éthiques chez les enseignants de l’ordre collégial : caractéristiques, points de repère et stratégies de résolution. Revue des sciences de l’éducation 36 (1), 213-231. [en ligne] http:www.erudit.org/revue/rse/2010/v36/n1/index.html. Hanson, K. (1996). Between Apathy and Advocacy: Teaching and Modeling Ethical Reflexion. NewDirections for Teaching, 66, 33-36. Hardy, D.E. (2002). Ethical Considerations Affecting Teaching in Community Colleges : an Abundance of Feelings and Limited Facts. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 26 (5),383-399. Keith-Spiegel, P., Wittig, A.F., Perkins, D.V., Ware Balogh, D., Whitley, B.E. jr (1996). Intervening with Colleagues. Dans L. Finch (Dir.), Ethical Dimensions of College and University Teachning (p. 75-78). San-Francisco : Jossey-Bass Publishers. Legault, G.A. (1999). Professionnalisme et délibération éthique. Sainte-Foy : Presses de l’Université du Québec. Ricoeur, P. (1991). ). Soi-même comme un autre. Paris : Seuil. Shapira-Lishchinsky, O. (2011). Teachers’ critical incidents : Ehical dilemmas in teaching practice. Teaching and Teacher Education 27, 648-656. Vinatier, I. (2013). Fondements paradigmatiques d’une recherche collaborative avec des formateurs de terrain. Notes du CREN, no13, février, 9 pages. Zubay, B. et Soltis, J.F. (2005). Creating the Ethical School. A book of case studies. New York :Teachers College Press.
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