22 SES 02 B, Policy, Management and Governance in Higher Education
In 2012 the Danish government asked a private company to evaluate the education of pedagogues (at bachelor level) with the explicit aim of gaining knowledge that could precede and inform a new reform focusing on quality. In 2014 a new regulation of the education begins. In the meantime an expert group has interpreted and presented the evaluation, a reform has been accepted in the parliament and new competency-goals are elaborated with the help of stake-holders. A rational and knowledge based process is going on, it seems.
Educational reforms of our time are often presented as rational processes, based on knowledge and evaluations and therefore necessarily leading to better quality. Following the reform of the education for pedagogues as a case, we argue that reform processes are also about creating unattentiveness, not only legitimizing the reform, but also actively leaving out central tensions and discussions about values . Educational quality is problematized in specific ways, leaving very little room for discussions about pedagogy as theory and practice based on values as well as knowledge. Inspired by a foucauldian notion of governmentality we carefully examine how education and pedagogy is being produced in ways that are reflecting the specificity of education and pedagogy in very narrow and – as we argue – poor ways.
In our analysis we go back to the critique on the same education that was formulated in the first evaluation in 2002. At that time the education –and hence also the profession it educated for- was criticized for not being explicit, as it seemed to be based on a cultural understated understanding of pedagogy. It was evaluated as a lack of order. Twelve years after we can see that the education and the educational processes are problematized and organized in another order, installing a very different vocabulary of understated understanding. We see a shift from' relativism' to 'objectivism'.
The reform is embedded in a transnational discourse about learning, quality and competences that implies an understanding of knowledge and norms as universal, objective and neutral, now slightly adapted as a constructivist conception of learning and reflection. With learning and reflection as educational aims, a logic of “knowledge as evolutional” is produced, creating a notion of the latest knowledge as a neutral solution to professional challenges. This discourse subjectivates learners in a specific way: they get tamed and are at the same time produced as professionals valuing closure, certainty, control and mastery, adapting them to the educational settings they are educated for.
This discourse is unattentive to the human-science tradition that emphasizes education as an open process, the educator as a person of judgment, the child/student as a subject and the emergence of something new in the course of human interaction. While dealing with plurality and the discussion of values and purposes is built in this tradition, the educational discourse of the reform does not stimulate this openness. As there is a strong tradition for education as participation and subjectivation in our country, specially in the field of early childhood education (kindergarten), the discourse of the reform and discourses rooted in those traditions are merged in the implementation of the reform. We will carefully examine the traces of the different understandings/discourses in the implementation of the reform at a specific University College, where previously also carried out a research project.
We evaluate the specific case in the light of what we see as a challenge of moving beyond objectivism and relativism. Can the term "competencies" at once be preserved as an adequate reference to the intentions of the reform and open up for an educational practice that goes beyond it?
Biesta, G.J.J. (2006). Beyond learning. Democratic education for a human future. Boulder, Co.: Paradigm Publishers. Biesta, G.J.J.(2014). How does a competent teacher become a good teacher . On judgement, wisdom and virtuosity in teaching and teacher education. In R. Heilbronn (et al), Philosophical perspectives on teacher education. (penultimate version as handed out by the author) Carr, D.(1993): Question of competence. British Journal of Educational Studies 41:3 Deakin Crick, R. (2008). Key competencies for education in a European Context: narratives of accountability of care. European Educational research Journal 7:3 Donnelly, J.F. (1999) Schooling Heidegger: on being in teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education 15 Foucault, Michel (1991): Governmentality. I Burchell, P. Miller (ed.): The Foucault Effect. Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: Chicago University Press Masschelein, J. Simons M.(2008). The governmentalization of learning and the assemblage of a learning apparatus. Educational Theory Volume 58 Number 4 Halász, G & Michel A (2011). Key competences in Europe: interpretation, policy formulation and implementation. European Journal of Education 46:3 Van Manen, M. (1999) The Practice of Practice. In: Lange, Manfred; Olson, John, Hansen, Henning & BŸnder, Wolfgang (eds.): Changing Schools/Changing Practices: Perspectives on Educational Reform and Teacher Professionalism. Luvain, Belgium: Garant. Reindal Solveig M.(2013). Bildung, the Bologna Process and Kierkegaard’s Concept of Subjective Thinking. Stud Philos Educ (2013) 32:533–549 Rothuizen, J.J. & Togsverd L. (red) (2013) : Hvordan uddannes pædagoger. Perspektiver fra et forskningsprojekt . VIA UC, Århus Documents edited as a part of the reform process of the education of pedagogues
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
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Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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