29 SES 10, Arts Based Research and Artistic Research
Creativity in education has recently been identified in public policy as a factor necessary for economic growth, innovative business, democratic societies, individual capacities and not at least the improvement of quality in education (Craft et al., 2001; Fiske 1999; Robinson 2011; Stevenson & Deasy, 2005; NACCCE, 1999). This is the view of UNESCO and many arts educators around the world and illustrated by the Seoul Agenda, goals for the development of arts education (UNESCO, 2010). This aims to apply arts education to enhance the creative and innovative capacity of society by applying arts education throughout schools and communities to foster the creative and innovative capacity of individuals and to cultivate a new generation of creative citizens. Sir Ken Robinson, a leading critic of schools and an advocate for arts education argues that systemic change is required before our education systems are to be equal to the challenge of providing the newly found need for creativity (Robinson, 2011). UNESCO declared in 2001 that creativity is the hope for new generations of young people. The argument is that a more creative population of young people is good for societies, economies, schools and learning centers, and, most importantly, good for the young people themselves.
For nearly a decade the authors of this paper have been engaged in different research projects on art-based approaches and creative achievement through drama/theatre teaching and learning in international contexts. The longest lasting project; Drama, creativity and aesthetic learning processes (2005-2013) used case studies and surveys to explore if and how the arts promote creative achievement in young people, and further on how creativity can be enhanced especially through drama/theatre teaching and learning, and what learning benefits there are for the participants—teachers and students alike (McCammon, O'Farrell, Sæbø & Heap 2008,2010,2011; O'Farrell, Sæbø, McCammon &Heap, 2009; Sæbø, McCammon, O'Farrell & Heap, 2008; Sæbø, McCammon & O'Farrell, 2007, 2008; Sæbø 2009, 2011, 2013).
In the other ongoing research project; Drama for critical literacy and democracy (2010-2016) the authors of this paper, one researcher from New Zealand and one from Norway work together. The project involves action based case studies in primary and lower secondary education. In previous ECER conferences we reported on earlier stages of this project (Greenwood & Sæbø, 2010, 2011, 2012). In 2013 we reported on further developments in the last stage of the project, and theorized the key elements of the learning that took place regarding drama, creativity and critical literacy and consequences for teacher education (Greenwood & Sæbø, 2013).
Both projects are cross-national research projects in which interactive, creative and aesthetic approaches to teaching and learning are applied to improve students’ creative engagement and competences in the learning process. The authors of this paper have looked at the characteristics of creative and art based approaches to teaching and learning through a variety of case studies.
For this paper we focus the question: What are the characteristic of a creative and art based teaching and learning process?
In this paper, we will describe theoretical models for developing creative capacities --specifically how using drama strategies build creative capacities. We describe what needs to be included in a creative art based teaching and learning process to have success and further on what the characteristics/ signs of quality in art based/ applied drama teaching for creative learning are. Our theory basis is that a socio-cultural and constructivistic perspective of knowledge and learning is needed to foster creativity and creative learning. This we expand with theory that emphasizes the aesthetic experience and theory on creativity (Vygotsky, 2005; Dewey 1934/1958; Shustermann, 2000, Ziehe, 2004; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 ; Greenwood,, 2011).
Craft, Anna, Bob Jeffrey, and Mike Leibling. 2001. Creativity in Education. London: Continuum. Csikszentmihalyi. Mihaly. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row. Fiske, Edward B. (Ed.). 1999. Champions of change. The impact of the arts on learning. Washington: Arts Education Partnership. Greenwood, J. (2011) Aesthetic learning, and learning through the aesthetic. In S. Schonmann (Ed.), Key Concepts in Theatre/Drama Education: 47-52. Rotterdam: Sense. Greenwood, J. & Sæbo, A. (2010). Creativity and Basic Skills: Competing or Complementary Agendas in Initial Teacher Education. Paper presented at ECER Conference. Helsinki. Greenwood, J. & Sæbo, A. (2011). Creativity and Literacy: The Need for Knowledge and Artistry in Teacher Education. Paper presented at ECER Conference. Berlin. Greenwood,J & Sæbø, A. (2012). Literacy, Creativity and Democracy: Creative Strategies for Teaching Critical Literacy. Paper presented at ECER Conference, Cadiz. Greenwood,J & Sæbø, A. (2013). Creativity, Critical Literacy, and Engaged Democracy: Strategies for Classroom Teaching And Implications For Teacher Education. Paper presented at ECER Conference, Istanbul. McCammon, Laura, Larry O’Farrell, Aud Bergraff Sæbø & Brian Heap. 2008. Teaching and learning for creative achievement. Arts and Learning Journal, 23(1). McCammon, L., O’Farrell, L., Sæbø, A. B. and Heap, B. (2010). “Connecting with Their Inner Being: An International Survey of Drama/Theatre Teachers’ Perceptions of Creative Teaching and Teaching for Creative Achievement”. I: Youth Theatre Journal – YTJ, 24 (02). McCammon, L., O’Farrell, L., Sæbø, A. B. & Heap, B. (2011). “Creativity Really Comes by What’s Inside of You. Drama/Theatre Teaching and Learning and Creative Achievement” in Shonmann, S. (red): Key Concept in Drama/Theatre Education.Rotterdam: Sense Publication. National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education. 1999. All our futures: Creativity, culture and education. London: DFEE. Robinson, Ken. 2010. Out of our minds: Learning to be creative. 4th ed. Oxford, England: Capstone Publishing Limited. Sæbø, A., McCammon, L.A., & O’Farrell, L (2008). “What is Creativity and How Can We Teach It? A Preliminary Reflection from an International Study”. Stage of the Art, 18 (3). Sæbø, A.B., McCammon, L.A., O’Farrell, L. & Heap, B. (2008). “Teaching and Learning for Creative Achievement: What Do Drama/Theatre Teachers Perceive?” I: Arts & Learning Research Journal, 24, (1). UNESCO (2001). Cultural heritage, creativity and education for all in Africa. Division of the Arts and cultural Enterprises, Sector of Culture, UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2010) Final Report: Second World Conference on Arts Education. Retrieved on-line, November 26, 2010.
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