01 SES 08 B, Ethical Dilemmas and Workplace Bullying
Psychology has traditionally focused on psychological deficits and disability until recently (Carr, 2004). Therefore, psychology has been criticized as primarily dedicated to addressing mental illness rather than mental ‘‘wellness.’’ (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter, & Taris, 2008). However, nowadays positive psychology perspective attracted most of the scholars’ attention such that researchers from different disciplines try to focus and make research on employees' positive emotions and behaviors rather than negative ones. This new branch of psychology is primarily concerned with the scientific study of human strengths and happiness (Carr, 2004; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Although interest in what is good about humans and their lives has long been a theme of human inquiry, the emergence of positive psychology has provided a conceptual home for researchers and practitioners interested in all aspects of optimal human functioning (Linley & Joseph, 2004).This approach is considered to supplement the traditional focus of psychology on disease, damage, disorder, and disability (Schaufeli, Bakker & Salanova, 2003).
To redress the psychological imbalance and to catalyze a change in psychology, we must bring the building of strength to the forefront in the treatment and prevention of mental illness (Seligman, 2002). For example, if we are willing to make a research on teachers, we should start from the engagement rather than burnout. Burnout can be characterized as a physical, emotional and mental exhaustion which involve such symptoms as physical exhaustion, feeling of despair and hopelessness, emotional deterioration, negative feelings against others (Maslach & Leiter, 1997). On the contrary, work engagement can be defined as “a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption” (Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-Roma & Bakker, 2002, p. 74). Maslach and Leiter (1997) assumes that engagement and burnout constitute the opposite poles of a continuum of work related well-being. According to their point of view while burnout represents the negative pole, engagement represent the positive. Contrary to those who suffer from burnout, engaged employees have a sense of energetic and effective connection with their work, and instead of stressful and demanding they look upon their work as challenging (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter, & Taris, 2008). In this regard we assumed that teachers’ work engagement may have a positive effect on their job satisfaction leading a positive effect on their life satisfaction.
The purpose of the study
Therefore the purpose of this research is threefold: first to determine the teachers’ levels of work engagement, and job and life satisfaction, second to investigate whether teachers’ levels of engagement, and job and life satisfaction differ significantly in terms of gender and professional seniority variables, and finally to explore the relationships between work engagement, and job and life satisfaction.
REFERENCES Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work & Stress, 22(3), 187-200. Carr, A. (2004). Positive psychology: The science of happiness and human strengths. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of personality assessment, 49(1), 71-75. Eryılmaz, A., & Doğa, T. (2012). Subjective well-being at work: Investigating of psychometric properties of Utrecht work engagement scale. Klinik Psikiyatri Dergisi [Journal of Clinical Psychiatry], 15(1). 49-55. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied psychology, 60(2), 159. Köker, S. (1991). Comparison of the level of life satisfaction of normal adolescents and adolescents with problems. Unpublished master’s thesis, Ankara University, Graduate School of Social Sciences. Linley, PA, & Joseph, S. (2004). Applied positive psychology: A new perspective for professional practice. In AP Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 3–12). New York: Wiley. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire a cross-national study. Educational and psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701-716. Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., Gonza´lez-Roma´ , V. & Bakker, A.B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71-92. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 3–9). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5-14. Taşdan, M. (2008). Kamu ve özel ilköğretim okullarında görevli öğretmenlerin değer, iş doyumu ve öğretmene mesleki sosyal destek ile ilgili görüşleri. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.
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