16 SES 02 B, Digital Literacy and Learning Styles
Digital competency (Lankshear & Knobel, 2008) and digital literacy (Glister, 1997; Lankshear & Knobel, 2008) have been among the most popular expressions in the curricula of recent years, and the effect of both on different generations – the Y and Z generations of the digital natives (the bit-generations) and the X generation of digital immigrants (Dani, 2013; Jukes, McCain & Crockett, 2010) – is one of society's main concerns. We will give some consideration to these newly emerged expressions and some background information related to them. First of all, the most important point is to emphasize that in order to develop digital competency effectively and efficiently and to achieve a satisfactory level in digital literacy, formal education is needed. For formal education, teachers are needed. For teachers, teacher education is needed. At this point the loop is closed, and we are facing the chicken and the egg problem: who teaches the teachers if there are no teachers? In Computer Sciences/Informatics Education (CSI) this is one of the most crucial questions and for an answer we have to look back in time to the emergence of the subject. The contradictions, both of the science itself, and of the developing commercialized world as it interacted with the science, affect teachers, teacher education and consequently the development of digital competency and literacy.
Recent studies have proved that more than 90% of the e-documents carry errors, and uneducated computer users cause serious financial losses by providing unreliable data and by using up much more time than problems require (Panko & Aurigemma, 2010; van Deursen & van Dijk, 2012), while other publications have provided evidence that these mistakes are due to a lack of algorithmic skills and thinking (Biró & Csernoch, 2013a, 2013b). However, the Students On Line session of the PISA 2009 survey proved that computer usage in schools does not necessarily increase the level of digital competence (OECD, 2011). This ambiguity clearly indicates that we have serious problems with the methods employed to teach CSI.
The problems of CSI education emerge from the particularities and the contradictions of the science: (1) a new science without any direct predecessors, (2) a science developing at a speed previously unknown in any other science, (3) the commercialized word developing around the science, and (4) the pressures and the needs for computer usage and for information.
The pioneer teachers were self-educated, in most cases not supervised, and if so, certainly not by experts in the didactics of the subject, because they did not exist. These first teachers taught mainly programming languages, algorithms, binary arithmetic, and computer architecture. Over time they became accepted, whether they were qualified or not; they used methods they developed themselves, without proving their efficiency and effectiveness, due to a lack of time and methods.
In the meantime computer science developed at an incredible speed, and the new graphical user interfaces (GUI) using the mouse increased the number of users and changed the approach and attitude towards computers. Everyone started to use computers regardless of any background knowledge, and software developers encouraged them to do so. These companies claimed that by using the GUI and its accompanying wizards the users would be able to solve problems. Users need do nothing else but click here and there and they will find the solution.
Even teachers fell for this, and, giving up the teaching of algorithms, switched to aimless clicking, not looking for the algorithms in these new programs; consequently they stopped developing their own and the students’ algorithmic skills.
Biró, P. & Csernoch, M. (2013a). Deep and surface structural metacognitive abilities of the first year students of Informatics. 4th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications, Proceedings, Budapest, 521–526. Biró, P. & Csernoch, M. (2013b). Programing skills of the first year students of Informatics. Elsőéves informatikushallgatók algoritmizáló készségei. XXIII. SzámOkt, EMT, Nagyszeben. 154–159. Case, J. & Gunstone, R. (2002). Metacognitive development as a shift in approach to learning: an in-depth study. Studies in Higher Education, 27(4), 459–470. Case, J. & Gunstone, R. (2003). Approaches to learning in a second year chemical engineering course. International Journal of Science Education, 25(7), 801–819. Case, J., Gunstone R. & Lewis A. (2001). Students' metacognitive development in an innovative second year chemical engineering course, Research in Science Education, 31(3), pp. 331–355. Csernoch, M. (2009). Teaching word processing – the theory behind. Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science. 2009/1. pp. 119–137. Csernoch, M. (2012). Introducing Conditional Array Formulas in Spreadsheet Classes. EDULEARN12 Proceedings. Barcelona, Spain. Publisher: IATED, 7270–7279. Csernoch, M. & Biró, P. (2013a). Teachers’ Assessment and Students’ Self-Assessment on The Students’ Spreadsheet Knowledge. EDULEARN13 Proceedings July 1st-3rd, 2013 — Barcelona, Spain. Publisher: IATED. pp. 949–956. Csernoch, M. & Biró, P. (2013b). Spreadsheet misconceptions, spreadsheet errors. Hungarian Conference on Educational Research, Debrecen. Csernoch, M. & Biró, P. (2014). Spreadsheet misconception, spreadsheet errors. Oktatáskutatás határon innen és túl. HERA Évkönyvek I., ed. Juhász Erika, Kozma Tamás, Publisher: Belvedere Meridionale, Szeged, pp. 370-395. Dani, E. (2013). Bit-Generations and the Digital Environment. in Current Issues In Some Disciplines, Karlovitz János Tibor (ed). Jukes, I., McCain T. & Crockett, L. (2010). Understanding the Digital Generation: Teaching and Learning in the New Digital Landscape. 21st Century Fluency Project Inc. ISBN-13: 978-1412938440. OECD (2011). PISA 2009 Results: Students on Line: Digital Technologies and Performance (Vol. VI). http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264112995-en. http://browse.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/pdfs/free/9811031e.pdf. Retrieved: 02.01.2014. Glister, P. (1997). Digital Literacy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2008). Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices. New York: Peter Lang. https://www.academia.edu/3011380/Digital_literacy_and_participation_in_online_social_networking_spaces. Retrieved: 02.01.2014. Nielsen, J. (1993). Usability Engineering, Academic Press, Boston, MA. Panko, R. & Aurigemma S. (2010). Revising the Panko-Halverson taxonomy of spreadsheet errors. Decis. Support Syst. 49, 2: 235–244. van Deursen A. & van Dijk J. (2012). CTRL ALT DELETE. Lost productivity due to IT problems and inadequate computer skills in the workplace. Enschede: Universiteit Twente.http://www.ecdl.org/media/ControlAltDelete_LostProductivityLackofICTSkills_UniverstiyofTwente1.pdf. Retrieved: 02.01.2014.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.