ERG SES H 11, ICT and Education
The main objective of this PhD research is to identify and understand the education and research practices of teachers/researchers of public Higher Education Institutions (HEI) in Portugal, as well as the influence of recommendations, initiatives and public support in the development of open educational practices.
To contextualise the problem, the study involves three levels of analysis: i) macro level, in terms of guidelines on open education and open access, both at European and national levels, as well as the strategies aligned with these guidelines; ii) mezzo level, regarding public HEI in Portugal, characterising their openness degree and support of open practices development; iii) micro level, focusing on the practices of teachers/researchers in their academic context, when playing the dual role in research and education.
The concept of Open Educational Practices (OEP) has its theoretical background in the movement of Open education and, more specifically, has developed from the movement of Open Educational Resources (OER). The definition and terminology regarding "open" and "openness" are identified by authors such as Anderson (2009), Santos (2012) and Weller (2012), among others. A possible definition of the relatively recent movement of the OER has been put forward by UNESCO (2002), OCDE (2007), Wiley (2007) and Downes (2011), among others, and it has evolved from a focus on technology to a focus on resources and its relevance, not only in terms of learning but also of research. By analysing the main initiatives of the OER movement in the last decade, it becomes clear that there has been a growing concern with the strategies that promote the use of the resources within open practices, in order to improve the learning experiences (OPAL, 2011; Ehlers, 2011; Teixeira, 2012). The international and collaborative initiative OPAL is an example of that concern. In the context of this project, a matrix was created that allows both individuals and educational institutions to position themselves in a "trajectory of openness" (Ehlers, 2011). Based on more than 65 international case studies, the model of the OPAL project, with its dimensions and indicators, allows educators and institutions to plan a strategy development of Open Educational Practices.
The concept of open access is also part of a broader movement, directly connected to science and academic research work, whose aim is to promote the free and unrestricted access to scientific and academic literature, aiming at a higher impact of the scientific work produced by researchers and institutions, thus reinforcing the scientific communication system. The benefits of open access on the impact of scientific research has been a focus of several studies (Kurtz et al., 2005; Joseph, 2012, among others). There are several policy initiatives on Open access, among which the European Scientific Council guidelines, in 2007, and the Open Access Pilot project, launched by the European Commission in 2008, in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The aim of these initiatives was to ensure that the results of all research funded by the European Union (EU) were made available to all EU citizens for free. In Portugal, Universidade do Minho, and in particular its Documentation Services have developed several projects concerning Open access, namely in the context of European projects such as MedOANet, OpenAIRE and OpenAIREplus. In fact, a research has been carried out in 2012, inquiring Portuguese researchers about their opinions, attitudes and practices regarding Open access (Rodrigues et al., 2013), whose results are very important for the present PhD research, when characterising the research practices of faculty in Portugal.
Anderson, T. (2009). On open, distance, e-learning and other name confusion [Weblog post]. Disponível em: http://terrya.edublogs.org/2009/01/15/on-open-distance-e-learning-and-other-name-confusion/. Acedido em 13/04/2013. Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. (Vol. 2). Sage Publications. Disponível em: http://books.google.pt/books?id=nSVxmN2KWeYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=pt-PT&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Acedido em 20/09/2013. Downes, S. (2011). Educational resources: A definition [Weblog post]. Disponível em: http://halfanhour.blogspot.ca/2011/07/open-educational-resources-defini¬tion.html. Acedido em 13/04/2013. Ehlers, U. D. (2011). From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices. eLearning Papers, 23(March), 1–8. Disponível em http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media25231.pdf. Acedido em 13/04/2013. Joseph, H. (2012). The impact of open access on research and scholarship. College & Research Libraries, 78(2), 83-87. Disponível em: http://crl.acrl.org/content/78/2/83.full.pdf+html. Acedido em 08/09/2013. Kurtz, M. J. et al. (2005). The Effect of Use and Access on Citations. Information Processing and Management, 41 (6). Disponível em https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~kurtz/IPM-abstract.html. Acedido em 08/09/2013. Morais, A. & Neves, I. (2007). Fazer uma investigação usando uma abordagem metodológica mista. Revista Portuguesa de Educação, 20(2), pp. 75-104. OPAL (2011). OEP, Guidelines for Open Educational Practices in organisations (Vs 2011). Disponível em http://www.oer-quality.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/OPAL-OEP-guidelines.pdf. Acedido em 15/09/2013. OECD (2007). Giving knowl¬edge for free: The emergence of open educational resources. Paris: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD. Disponível em: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/38654317.pdf. Acedido em 30/04/2013. Rodrigues, E., Boavida, C., Carvalho, J., Saraiva, R. & Príncipe, P. (2013). Os investigadores em Portugal e a sua relação com o acesso aberto à produção científica. Braga: Universidade do Minho. Disponível em: http://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/handle/1822/23391. Acedido em 15/09/2013. Santos, A. I. (2012). Educação aberta: histórico, práticas e o contexto dos recursos educacionais abertos. In Santana, B., Rossini, C., Pretto, N. L., (Org). Recursos Educacionais Abertos: práticas colaborativas e políticas públicas (1ª ed.). Salvador: Edufba; São Paulo: Casa da Cultura Digital. Disponível em: http://www.artigos.livrorea.net.br/2012/05/educacao-aberta-historico-praticas-e-o-contexto-dos-recursos-educacionais-abertos/. Acedido em 13/04/2013. Teixeira, A. (2012). Desconstruindo a universidade: Modelos universitários emergentes mais abertos, flexíveis e sustentáveis. RED Revista de Educación a distancia, 32. Disponível em http://www.um.es/ead/red/32/teixeira.pdf. Acedido em 19/03/2013. UNESCO (2002). Forum on the impact of open courseware for higher education in developing countries: final report. Paris: UNESCO. Disponível em: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001285/128515e.pdf. Acedido em 25/04/2013. Weller, M. (2012). The openness-creativity cycle in education. Journal Of Interactive Media In Education, 2012(01). Disponível em: http://jime.open.ac.uk/jime/article/view/2012-02 Acedido em 29/09/2013. Wiley, D. (2007). On the Sustainability of Open Educational Resource Initiatives in Higher Education. Paper commissioned by the OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) for the project on Open Educational Resources. Disponível em: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/38645447.pdf. Acedido em 20/04/2013.
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