ERG SES C 03, ICT and Education
This work will present part of the conclusions to which we arrive in the implementation of a PhD research project. The PhD research project was developed with a design-based research approach following an iterative approach for implementing and evaluating a learning model that explored the use of a semantic hypermedia authoring application as a cognitive tool. The project aimed the definition of guiding principles for a framework for developing teaching and learning models that explore class activities that lead students to develop interactive videos and publish their projects’ progress online.
Departing from a need to adapt and adjust constructivist and social cognitive theories introduced decades before the emergence of the internet by Piaget and Vygotsky, this study was developed within a constructionist framework already defined by Papert and Harel (1991) and goes beyond exploring several ideas proposed by Siemens when presenting connectivism as a new learning theory.
George Siemens claims that education should focus a new set of skills that he claims that are not being considered in previous theories. These new skills are, for example, self-organization of knowledge, dealing with chaotic situations, meaning-making and creating connections between fields, ideas, concepts, people and communities (2004). For Siemens learning is the process of “creating networks” and meaning is “created through the formation of connections and encoding nodes” within a network (Siemens, 2004, p.21). For Siemens these nodes that “must be encoded and connected to other elements of the network” (ibid.,p.21) can be several things: “nodes may be people, organizations, libraries, web sites, books, journals, database, or any other source of information” (Siemens, 2006, p.29). Therefore, learning is not the construction of a puzzle of ideas and concepts, but rather a process of knowing how to easily have access to relevant and reliable sources of information. These skills are also discussed by authors as Jenkins et al. (2009) and Knobel and Lankshear (2010) that support a new set of skills and attitudes for a new digital media literacy.
With the increase of an emerging participatory culture described by Bruns (2007) people online are increasingly creating and remixing their own productions. Several authors support the idea that schools and universities should help provide the needed skills to embrace this emerging participatory paradigm. For doing this, many authors argue that students should assume the operating control and develop their own learning path and learning stories (Bera & Liu, 2006; Iiyoshi & Hannafin, 2002). Ohler (2004), supporting the role of learning activities that promote the use of storytelling projects in class, claims that “stories become the cornerstone of constructivist learning, in which students become heroes of their own learning adventures” (p.9).
The main question, here proposed, is which may be considered the cognitive outcomes of using such a teaching and learning model where students are encouraged to connect with their peers and with online communities in the process of creating interactive videos structured with semantic networks.
The hypermedia application selected and used for this study is named Korsakow that is an open-source and free to use application sustained by a community of users (www.Korsakow.org) with already several professors using it in their own classes. This application was created to facilitate the development of a specific type of interactive videos that allows the exploration of both semantic relations between video segments as in a database video and at the same time their sequential order. The specific characteristics of Korsakow engine are explored and discussed as well as its utility within learning contexts.
Bera, S. & Liu, M. (2006). Cognitive tools, individual differences, and group processing as mediating factors in a hypermedia environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(2), (pp. 295-319). doi:10.1016/j.chb.2004.05.001 Brown, A.L. (1992). Design Experiments: Theoretical and Methodological Challenges in Creating Complex Interventions in Classroom Settings. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(2), 141-178 Bruns, A. (2007). Produsage. Em Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCHI conference on Creativity & cognition (pp 99–106). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi:10.1145/1254960.1254975 Herrington, J., McKenney, S., Reeves, T. and Oliver, R. (2007). Design-based research and doctoral students: Guidelines for preparing a dissertation proposal Iiyoshi, T. & Hannafin, M. J. (2002). Cognitive Tools and User-Centered Learning Environments: Rethinking Tools, Functions, and Applications. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE); Jenkins, H. (2009). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Retrieved 07/05/2012, http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/%7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C-E807E1B0AE4E%7D/JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF Reeves, T. (2006). Design Research From a Technology perspective. In Akker, J. J. H. van den. (Ed.). Educational design research. London; New York: Routledge. 86-109 Collins, A. (1992). Toward a Design Science of Education, In E. Scanlon&T. O’Shea (Eds.), New directions in educational technology (pp. 15–22). New York: Springer-Verlag Ohler, J. B. (2007). Digital Storytelling in the Classroom: New Media Pathways to Literacy, Learning, and Creativity. Corwin Press. Torniai, C., Jovanovic, J., Gasevic, D., Bateman, S., & Hatala, M. (2008). E-Learning meets the Social Semantic Web. Em Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 2008. ICALT ’08, 389–393. doi:10.1109/ICALT.2008.20 Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2011). New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning (3rd ed). Open University Press. Papert, S. & Harel I. (1991). Situating Constructionism. In Harel,I. and Papert, S. (Ed.) Constructionism: Research Reports and Essays. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Norwood, N.J: Ablex Pub. Corp Siemens, G. (April 5, 2005). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Retrieved from www.connectivism.ca Siemens, G. (2006). Knowing knowledge. ISBN 978-1-4303-0230-8
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