ERG SES C 07, Arts and Education
In a constantly changing world where societies have turned multicultural, school is confronted with cultural plurality (Lenoir et al., 2006) and has become more ethnically diverse, whereas teachers and national educational systems remain predominantly monocultural and monoethnic. Instead of “supporting young people in developing attitudes necessary for life in society, introducing respect for human rights as the foundations for managing diversity and stimulating openness to other cultures”, as the Council of Europe (2008, p. 30) suggests, school fails to promote active citizenship (Stamelos, 2011).
Researchers and policy-makers in Europe admit that due to school’s insufficiencies there is a crucial need for citizenship education which is associated with human and universal values, such as intercultural dialogue and respect towards the ‘Other’. Thus, they are led outside the walls of this educational institution in order to find non-formal paths for developing active citizenship. As a result, during the last years, museum education, as a form of non-formal education, is being presented as a new mechanism for promoting citizenship and interaction with the ‘Other’, in partnership with the school (Buffet, 2003; Charalampopoulou, 2010).
In this research we are focusing on museums since we see them as places that can favour intercultural dialogue, encourage reconciliation through the understanding of cultural diversity and therefore promote a pluralistic and tolerant society. In France the museum has opened to social groups who face difficulties of integration and are in danger of losing their cultural identity. These institutions are already associated with civic education and offer possibilities for citizenship education. Similar efforts have been made in Greece, although there is still a gap between theory and practice concerning democratic citizenship education (Karakatsani, 2008). The need for development of educational strategies towards this direction in both institutions - schools and museums - is crucial (Meunier & Soulier, 2010).
In the centre of research in education we have always come across matters of socialisation, but most recently the interest has moved towards the concept of citizenship (Eurydice, 2005; Audigier, 1999; Hoskins et al., 2006). Previous literature on this concept (Bäckman & Trafford, 2008; Bîrzéa, 2000; European Forum of Youth, 2002; Eurydice, 2005; Hoskins, 2006; Karakatsani, 2008; Pol, 2004; Sears et al., 1996; Tutiaux-Guillon, 2007) has helped us create the theoretical frame of our research. In contemporary societies citizenship means giving emphasis to the right of everyone to identity difference and participation in social life (Cornwall & Gaventa, 2001). Citizenship and intercultural education are considered complementary (Council of Europe, 2008).
This paper focuses on the museum as a non-formal educational device that we consider fundamental for reflection and action in the future of educational research. Our study poses the question of transmitting intercultural values to children via museum education. The research question is the following: How does an educational museum program contribute to promoting intercultural dialogue amongst pupils?
The aim of this thesis is to focus on existing international bibliography and projects in order to create a guideline of good practices that will develop young people’s intercultural attitudes and skills, such as the ability to question one’s own points of view, the awareness of one’s own multiple identities and openness to individuals and groups with different cultural, ethnic or religious backgrounds.
Audigier, F. (1999). L’éducation à la citoyenneté. Paris, INRP. Bäckman, E. & Trafford, B. (2008). Apprendre et vivre la démocratie : pour une gouvernance démocratique de l’école. Strasbourg: Conseil de l’Europe. Birzea, C. (2000). Education for Democratic Citizenship. Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Buffet, F. (2003), Éducation et culture en Europe : le rôle du partenariat. Paris : L’Harmattan. Charalampopoulou, C. (2010). Le projet éducatif muséal comme dispositif de l’éducation à la citoyenneté (mémoire de Master 2 inédit). Université de Rouen. Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (1997). Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge Falmer. Cornwall, A., & Gaventa J. (2001). From Users and Choosers to Makers and Shapers: Repositioning Participation in Social Policy. Sussex: Institut of Development Studies. Eurydice (2005). L’éducation à la citoyenneté à l’école en Europe, Commission Européenne. Forum Européen de la Jeunesse (2002). Éducation dans tous les aspects de la vie pour une citoyenneté active. Bruxelles. Hoskins, B., Jesinghaus, J., M., Mascherini, Munda, G., Nardo, M., Saisana, M., Van Nijlen, D., Vidoni, D., Villalba, E. (2006). Measuring Active Citizenship in Europe. European Commission. Karakatsani, D. (2008). The role of the teacher in the frame of social and political education. Professionalism, self-development and instructional strategies. In Balias, St. (ed.), Active citizen and education. p.151-173. Athens: Papazisi. Lenoir, Y., Xypas, C. et Jamet, C. (2006). École et citoyenneté : un défi multiculturel. Paris, A. Colin. Meunier, A., Soulier, V. (2010). Préfiguration du concept de muséologie citoyenne. In: J.-F., Cardin, M.-A. Ethier et A. Meunier (Eds.), Histoire, musées et éducation à la citoyenneté (p.309-328). Québec : MultiMondes. Pol, M. (2004) Education for democratic citizenship. Council of Europe: Strasbourg. Doc. DGIV/EDU/CIT (2003) 26 rev 1. Sears, A. & Hughes, A. (1996). Citizenship Education and Current Educational Reform. Canadian Journal of Education, vol.21, n.2, p. 123–142. Stamelos, G. (2011). Le poids de l’histoire dans la construction du « Nous » et de « l’Autre » : analyse du cas grec, Penser l’éducation, 30, 99-116. Tautiaux-Guillon, N. (2007). Changing citizenship, changing educational goals, changing school subjects? An analysis of history and geography teaching in France. In : Cajani, L. and Ross, A. (2007). History teaching, identities, citizenship. CiCe Series No.7. p. 35-53, UK, Trentham Books Ltd.
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