05 SES 14, Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
A minor is removed from the family environment , where their development is endangered their health neglected , ie not protected from third parties. Research shows that the child / young hard overcome their difficulties linking and have determination to accept new and beneficial relationships binding , and the condition support the acquisition / support in understanding what happened to you in your personal narrative " value " in conjunction with family relationship ( Gomes , 2010) .
Research questions for a semistructured interview conducted individually , face to face , with 15 technicians 3 residential institutions for children and young people in the district were designed for Braga - Portugal , with the aim of investigating how professionals experience the development and maintenance of bonds with the children / youth in residential facilities .
Representations that caregivers attach to trusts / intimacy created with the newest ? As mentioned by Gomes (2010 , p.31 ) , their cognitions imply the notion of placement of children / young people to live daily with teachers / technicians themselves , " committed and motivated professionals with a solid personal and professional training , with creativity and ability to deal with situations of frustration and high emotional complexity. "
The binding theory is a theory of personality development , being supported in the interaction at various levels : between child and family and social environment among children and caregivers , including children and families , and later between adults. Bond can still be referred to as a planned behavior that is appropriate for a child when this feeling anxious ( Howe et al . , 1999) . A " secure base " then give him a sense of capacity developed in the " notion that may influence the surrounding environment and to exercise some control over the context" ( Cerdeira , 2009, p . 3 ) . In relation to attachment theory , there may be a " best " accommodation , if parents adapt to the expectations of the child / young person in relation to their " needs " ( Brazelton & Greenspan , 2002, p. 95 ) .
Understand by bonding / attachment " ( Bowlby , 1988) a reciprocal and lasting emotional bond between the baby and the father figure , in which each contributes to the quality of the relationship " ( Papalia et . Al . , 2001, p. 245 ) . Bowbly (1984 ) pointed out that a child three months longer reacts to the presence of the mother , but cautioned to the fact that it does not want to say it is already having an affective behavior with the mother / caregiver / a , distinct from what would have to another individual .
It is argued , therefore, that a relation of " secure " attachment ( Bowlby , 1988 ) , a positive attitude is based on the practice of "change agents " ( Gomes , 2010 ) , with temperament " easy " , ability to create and shape for mutual trust , which is guided in the progressive construction of a "life " of the newest, consistent accountability and autonomy . It is necessary , therefore, when a child / young person resides in a "home " , having in mind the professional who will start the process of reception , being sensitive to "the needs of the child, in particular , their individuality , respecting the rights of the child; protection , health and education , standardization and social integration , autonomy and independence , security and protection and family support " ( Del Valle , 2000; cit Gomes in 2010 . ) .
It is known that minors who face many challenges / changes , with great stress in situations of extreme adversity , overcoming their coping skills in such contingencies , and lack of social support from attachment figures ( Bowlby , 1988; Cassidy & Shaver , 1999) , tend to develop " issues " / developmental disorders and personality . Without a " secure base " show up their limits in terms of resilience ( Luthar , 2003; Walsh , 2003) .
The inconsistency / uncertainty ( " insecure attachment " ) is involved as a ( threatening) loss and may create feelings of distress / anxiety and , in the case of actual loss , an intense " sadness " ( Oliveira & Prochno 2010) .
Bardin, (2008 L). Análise de conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70. Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: clinical implications of attachment theory. London: Routledge. Brazelton, T. B. & Greenspan, S.I (2002). As necessidades essenciais das crianças: O que toda a criança precisa para crescer, aprender e se desenvolver. S. Paulo: ArtMed. Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (1999). Handbook of attachment. N.Y.: Guilford. Cerdeira, J. (2009). Vinculação e funcionamento cognitivo da criança: o contexto de interacção mãe-filho. Em internet www.psicologia.com.pt (acessível 03 de março de 2012). Gomes, C. (2010). Acreditar no futuro. Alfragide: Textos Editores. Howe, D., Brandon, M., Hinings, D., & Schofield, G. (1999). Attachment theory, child maltreatment and family support: A practice and assessment model. London: Macmillan. Iñiguez, L. (2007). Análise del discurso. Manual para las ciencias socials, 2ª Ed. Barcelona: EDIUOC. Luthar, S. (2003). Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oliveira, S. & Próchno, C. (2010) A vinculação afectiva para crianças institucionalizadas à espera de adoção. Psicologia ciência e profissão. 30 (1), 62-84. Papalia, D, Olds, S., & Feldman, R. (2001). O mundo da criança. Lisboa: LinkMacGraw-Hill. Ribeiro, J. (2008) Metodologia de investigação em psicologia e saúde. 2ª edição. Porto: Legis Editora – Livpsic. Porto. Soares, I. (2009). Relações de vinculação ao longo do desenvolvimento: teoria e avaliação. Braga: Psiquilibrios. Strauss, A. (1987). Qualitative analysis for social scientists. N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Walsh, F. (2003). Family resilience: Strengths forged through adversity. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Normal family processes (pp. 399-423). 3ª edição. N.Y.: Guilford.
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Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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