ERG SES H 09, Policies of Education
This research proposes an analysis of the coincidence between the concepts of police and education by using the foundation of Real Casa Pia under the auspices of the Intendente-Geral da Polícia Pina Manique (1780) as a historical paradigm. Created in 1760, the Intendência-Geral da Polícia was assigned to supervise all matters of “public tranquillity” in the Portuguese realm. To do so, it was given “unlimited jurisdiction over all criminal and civil ministers”. Casa Pia, its dependent institution, was erected to “promote the employment of a great number of subjects” that would have otherwise “become victims of ignorance and indolence” and responsible for inevitable “vices and felonies”. A diversified population of orphans, juvenile delinquents and “disgraced women” converged to this establishment to be distributed among different schools, correctional facilities and workhouses according to their age or the gravity of their crimes. Despite using different methods, both these institutions pursued the same goal: the fabrication of compliance between certain modes of existence and the conventional values of “Religion” and “State”.
The narratives that traditionally capture this juxtaposition of police and education can be divided into three groups. The first, which inserts Casa Pia and the Intendência in a vast timeline, attempts to produce a history of police as an institution dedicated to the internal security of the State. It tends to generate linear descriptions by showing the development of policing in different stages, from the elementary materializations of the past to its decisive consummation in the present. In this context police becomes an ahistorical necessity subject to improvements in the course of history. The second type of account examines these institutions as singularities engendered within a particular historical background, by articulating them with the specificities of late 18th century political thought. It confronts the reader with a concept of police unfamiliar to contemporary perception. It was then a synonym for governmental techniques resulting from 18th century raison d’État, a topic studied by authors such as Astuti, Schiera and Hespanha. In Portugal, this historical peculiarity assumed the form of an all-embracing institution, which, under the general idea of “public tranquillity”, encompassed an array of tasks including the plantation of trees, public illumination, moralisation of beggars and vagrants, education of orphans and delinquents and the surveillance and pursuit of cultural assemblies and secret organizations. The third category comprises monographs and biographies dedicated to Casa Pia and Pina Manique, in which lavish praise is heaped upon the enlightened institution – the forerunner of modern pedagogy in Portugal – and its visionary founder.
In the tradition of a history of the present, which brings together Nietzsche and Foucault, this study proposes a methodological framework aimed at bypassing this narrative triangle that has confined the parameters of debate on the subject of police and education. By taking into account the umbilical relationship between the Intendência and Casa Pia, the research strategy materialised in two simultaneous investigations: an analysis of the concept of police connected to the production of subjects and the planning of individual lives; an analysis of the concept of schooling related to practices of segregation, surveillance and homogenization of individuals within groups. To filter police through the sieve of schooling; to screen schooling through the sieve of police. Instead of producing a history of police or Casa Pia as necessary or enlightened institutions; rather than creating a research that, by gluing itself to the past, inevitably conceals its resonance in the present, this thesis intends to build a narrative based on the procedures aimed at producing conformity that can be identified both in historiographical discourse and in the incubation of the modern school subject.
Araújo, Luís Manuel de (2000). 220 Anos da Casa Pia de Lisboa : Instruir, Educar e Amparar. Lisbon: Centro Cultural Casapiano. Astuti, Guido (1967). «O absolutismo esclarecido em Itália e o Estado de polícia». In Guido Astuti, La formazione dello Stato moderno in Italia. Lezioni di storia del diritto italiano. vol.I. Turin: Giappichelli. Cosme, João (2006). História da Polícia de segurança pública. Lisbon: Sílabo. Deleuze, Gilles (2013). Nietzsche. Lisbon: Edições 70. Foucault, Michel (2004). Vigiar e Punir. Petrópolis: Vozes. Foucault, Michel (2008). Segurança, Território, População. São Paulo: Martins Fontes. Hespanha, António Manuel (1984). Poder e instituições na Europa de Antigo Regime. Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Lapa, Albino (1942). História da Polícia de Lisboa, vol. I. Lisbon: Bertrand. Lapa, Albino (1964). História da Polícia de Lisboa, vol. II. Lisbon: Bertrand. Margiochi, Francisco Simões (1895). A Real Casa Pia de Lisboa (1780-1895): notícia da sua fundação, história, fins e organização actual. Porto: Tipografia Portuense. Martins, Francisco de Assis de Oliveira (1948). Pina Manique, o político, o amigo de Lisboa. Lisbon: Sociedade Industrial de Tipografia. Nietzsche, Friedrich (2000). A Gaia Ciência. Lisbon: Guimarães Editores. Nietzsche, Friedrich (1976). Le Crépuscule des Idoles. Paris: Denoël Gonthier. Noronha, Eduardo (1923). Pina Manique, o Intendente de antes quebrar… (Costumes, banditismo e polícia no fim do século XVIII, princípios do século XIX. Porto: Livraria Civilização. Schiera, Pierangelo (1984). «A “polícia” como síntese de ordem e de bem-estar no moderno Estado centralizado.» In Hespanha, António Manuel, Poder e instituições na Europa de Antigo Regime. Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Silva, Alfredo Augusto César da (1896). Real Casa Pia de Lisboa: Breve História da sua fundação. Lisbon: Tipografia Brito Nogueira. Subtil, José (1993). “Os Poderes do Centro” in História de Portugal, coord. de José Mattoso, vol. IV, O Antigo Regime. Lisbon: Círculo de Leitores. Subtil, José (2007). O Terramoto Político (1755-1759). Lisbon: UAL. Tavares, Adérito. (1990) Pina Manique, Um Homem Entre Duas Épocas. Lisbon: Casa Pia. Vasconcelos, João Rosado de Vilalobos e (1782). O Perfeito Pedagogo na Arte de Educar a Mocidade: em que se dão as Regras da Polícia e Urbanidade Cristã conforme os usos e costumes de Portugal. Lisbon: Tipografia Rolandiana. Vasconcelos, João Rosado de Vilalobos e (1786). Elementos da Polícia geral de um Estado, traduzidos do francês (...). Lisbon: Oficina de Francisco Luís Ameno. Vasconcelos, João Rosado de Vilalobos e (1824). Livro dos meninos, ou ideias gerais, e definições das coisas que os meninos devem saber. Lisbon: Tipografia Rolandiana.
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