ERG SES D 08, Citizenship and Education
Individual citizenship behavior was described by Woolfolk Hoy, Hoy, and Kurz (2008) as “voluntary and discretionary citizenship behavior of teachers that exceed the formal expectation of the job” (p. 825). Its origin was from the construct of organizational citizenship behavior that was used firstly by Organ. Organ (1997, p. 95) defined organizational citizenship as “performance that supports the social and psychological environment in which task performance takes place.” Accordingly, workers in an organization may behave in organizationally beneficial ways and freely help others achieve a task at hand (Bateman & Organ, 1983). These behaviors that show extra efforts beyond the formal obligations of their status are important supports for an effective organizational performance.
DiPaola and Hoy (2005b) defined teacher’s behaviors, like volunteering to help their colleagues and to go out of their way to introduce themselves to others, as organizational citizenship behaviors. These teachers also help their students on their own time also spend more time in the school to help. In addition, they use time effectively in their class or in the school. They make it easy for their students and parents. Teachers as professionals may exhibit willingness to “go the extra mile” to make sure that students succeed (Woolfolk Hoy et al., 2008). These are also individual citizenship behaviors. Teachers who behave in this way are personally devoted in the success of students and feel themselves responsible for student learning (DiPaola & Hoy, 2005b).
DiPaola and Tschannen-Moran (2001), in their study, developed a new questionnaire to measure organizational citizenship behaviors in K-12 schools and examine the correlation between organizational citizenship behaviors and school climate. They believed that greater citizenship behaviors support creating a positive and open climate in schools. A positive and open climate has many beneficial results including student achievement. Their correlational analyses indicated that there was a strong link between organizational citizenship behaviors and school climate. Accordingly, collegial leadership, which is one of the dimensions of school climate, predicted greater organizational citizenship. Collegial leaders support teacher professionalism because professional norms in schools support organizational citizenship. Moreover, the goals of professionals include a strong press for academic achievement. As a result, DiPaola and Tschannen-Moran stressed that there is a strong correlation between academic press and organizational citizenship.
Woolfolk Hoy, Hoy, and Kurz (2008) developed and tested a new construct, teacher’s academic optimism, by examining its relationships with sets of teachers’ beliefs and practices, such as individual citizenship behavior. Woolfolk Hoy, Hoy, and Kurz claimed that a set of teacher’s characteristics including individual citizenship behavior are positive predictors of teacher’s academic optimism. To measure individual citizenship behavior, they used DiPaola and Tschannen-Moran (2001)’s Organizational Citizenship Behavior in School Scale (OCBSS), modified to access teacher-level beliefs and they added the 3 items from the Teacher’s Belief Survey (TBS: Woolley, Benjamin, & Woolley, 2004). Reliability of items that measured individual citizenship behavior was .69. The result of the study indicated that teacher individual citizenship behavior and a set of teacher variables support teacher’s academic optimism. Accordingly, the greater individual citizenship behaviors are, the more optimistic teachers.
As indicated in the literature, teachers who are high on citizenship use their talents to enhance students’ achievement and adapt easily to apply new teaching approaches and useful teaching strategies in their class. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no study related to the adaptation of the Individual Citizenship Behavior Scale that was used by Woolfolk Hoy, Hoy, and Kurz (2008) to Turkish language. Therefore, the aim of this study was to adapt the Individual Citizenship Behavior Scale into Turkish for in-service teachers and to find out these teachers’ citizenship behavior.
Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job Satisfaction and the Good Soldier.. The Relationship between Affect and Employee Citizenship. The Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587-595. Dipaola, M.F., & Hoy, W.K. (2005a). School characteristics that foster organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of School Leadership, 15, 308-326. Diapola, M., & Hoy, M. K. (2005b). Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students. The High School Journal, 88(3), 35-44. DiPaola, M., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). Organizational citizenship behavior in schools and its relationship to school climate. Journal of School Leadership, 11(5), 424-47. Organ, W. D. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its construction clean up time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97. Woolfolk-Hoy, A., Hoy, W. K., & Kurz, N. M. (2008). Teacher’s academic optimism: The development and test of a new construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 821-835. Woolley, S. L., Benjamin, W. J., & Woolley, A. W. (2004). Construct Validity of a Self-Report Measure of Teacher Beliefs Related to Constructivist and Traditional Approaches to Teaching and Learning. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(2), 319-331.
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