ERG SES G 08, Students and Education
Classroom Ecology (Allen, 1986; Doyle, 2006) analyses the classroom management phenomenon from an ecological vision on educational settings (Bronfenbrenner, 1976), presenting students' engagement as a central pedagogical goal in classroom management. Doyle concurs with Allen in arguing for the reciprocal influence between teachers and students in achieving high levels of students’ cooperation and engagement with the proposed activities across interdependent task systems, namely the instructional, managerial, and social. Overall, these authors agree on how classroom environments are shaped by primary vectors - engaged by the teachers -, and secondary vectors – students’ behavioural responses - as either concurring or opposing forces that shape the real characteristics of the program of action. When students express opposing vectors, it is initiated a tacit negotiation process pushing teachers to respond with: a) forcing instruction by ignoring the students’ social agenda; b) allowing the manifestation of their behaviour by suspending the instructional task system, traded for good standing and cooperation in the managerial system; or c) implementing instructional and managerial by taking into account the students’ social agenda. These authors’ research concurs that the latest response, here identified as integrative pedagogies, promotes higher levels of students’ engagement.
Hastie and Siedentop (2006) stress that initial findings on classroom ecology in Physical Education (PE) settings are not only consistently replicated for PE, confirming common themes and concerns throughout the various educational and instructional contexts, but also that research in this subject area has contributed to broaden the initial framework. More specifically, classroom ecology research in PE has confirmed and clarified the importance for students’ engagement of curriculum design, accountability and negotiation as mechanisms that facilitate the integration of instruction, organisation and social relations under consistently learning-oriented programs of action. Thus the interaction between these mechanisms converges in the following theoretical proposition: Integrative pedagogies are critically defined by merging meaningful curriculum contents with a multidimensional and content-embedded accountability to intentionally accommodate the students’ social system within instruction and organization.
As research demonstrates that integrative pedagogies induce ideal classroom environments for influencing student’s engagement, these pedagogies seem scarce in teaching practice raising questions of how and why only some teachers’ develop them. Part of the answer relies on rarely responded solicitations to understand classroom ecologies attending to the wider school context (Cross & Hong, 2012; Doyle; Hamilton, 1982; Hastie & Siedentop), where Castelli and Rink’s (2003) results converged with broader educational research on the importance of the subject department as a critical external context in promoting students’ success (Harris, 2001).
Bronfenbrenner (1976) introduces the mesosystem as an important notion that facilitates the search for answers on how students’ engagement in the classroom can be amplified by external contexts, namely, the subject departments. The mesosystem is the level of interaction between different microsystems and carries elements of reciprocity that hold the potential to increase behavioral and developmental outcomes in each microsystem. In this line, the classroom is the microsystem where a common vision of PE is materialized, a vision that is constructed at the microsystem of the teachers’ subject department collaborative work, thus framing a mesosystemic relationship with unclarified interactions with students’ engagement. Latest OECD report on the relationship between teachers’ collaborative work and teachers’ classroom practices (Vieluf, Kaplan, Klieme, & Bayer, 2012) confirm the need to clarify in Europe the classroom experiences of both teachers and students, especially attending to the underexplored nature of its interaction with the subject departments’ collaborative work (Louis & Marks, 1996).
Attending to the stated necessities, our study sought to explore the following research question: Under strong collaborative work conditions, how is students’ engagement promoted/achieved through integrative pedagogies?
Allen, J. D. (1986). Classroom management: Students' perspectives, goals, and strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23(3), 437-459. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1976). The experimental ecology of education. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association annual meeting, San Francisco, CA. Castelli, D., & Rink, J. E. (2003). Chapter 3: A comparison of high and low performing secondary physical education programs. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(5), 512-532. Cross, D., & Hong, J. (2012). An ecological examination of teachers' emotions in the school context. Teaching & Teacher Education, 28, 957-967. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2012.05.001 Doyle, W. (2006). Ecological approaches to classroom management. In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 97-126). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaurn Associates, Inc. Hamilton, S. F. (1982). The social side of schooling: Ecological studies of classrooms and schools. Paper presented at the National Invitational Conference, "Research on teaching: Implications for practice", Warrenton. Harris, A. (2001). Department improvement and school improvement: A missing link? British Educational Research Journal, 27(4), 477-486. doi: 10.1080/01411920120071470 Hastie, P., & Siedentop, D. (2006). The classroom ecology paradigm. In D. Kirk, D. Macdonald & M. O'Sullivan (Eds.), Handbook of Physical Education (pp. 214-224). London: Sage Publications. Hord, S. M. (2004). Learning together leading together: Changing schools through professional learning communities. New York: Teachers College Press. Louis, K., & Marks, H. (1996). Does professional community affect the classroom? Teachers' work and students' experiences in restructuring schools. American Journal of Education, 106(4), 532-575. Vieluf, S., Kaplan, D., Klieme, E., & Bayer, S. (2012). Teaching practices and pedagogical innovation: Evidence from TALIS Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264123540-en Yin, R. (2010). Estudo de caso - Planejamento e métodos [Case-study: Planning and methods] (A. Thorell, Trans. 4th ed.). Porto Alegre: Bookman.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
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Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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