10 SES 05 A, Teacher Educators: Entrepreneurship and Identity
Studies on teacher educators have been developing in last decade and reveal a tendency to grow (Crook, 2012). The expansion of higher education and the awareness of the importance of teacher education to improve basic education led to a concern with teacher educators (Koster & Dengerink, 2001). Indeed, it came consensual that the professional development of educators deserves special attention (Cochran-Smith, 2003; Koster, Dengerik, Korthagen, & Lunenberg, 2008; Margolin, 2011).
The main factors motivating the studies on teacher educators concern the various nature and complexity of teacher educators’ role (Robinson, 2003); the need to “de-naturalize” the traditional perception on teaching in higher education (Smith, 2003), and the development of policies able to promote teacher educators’ professional development according to current education demands (Cochran-Smith, 2003). Since teacher educators contribute to the professional development of school teachers, a concern with the relationship between teacher education and teaching profession arises. Considering the diversified nature and complexity of school teachers’ role, teacher educators’ mission will be not limited to the expansion of theoretical knowledge, but includes practical knowledge and the development of cognitive and emotional aspects (Smith, 2003). In fact, theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge (Shulman, 2005; Tardif, 2002; Zabalza, 2004) must be constantly mediated by teacher educators (Korthagen, 2010). As teacher education is increasingly taken place in higher education institutions, it comes crucial to deepen the reflection on higher professional education assuring high level professional training, which implies new and nurturing metaphors of knowledge informing training processes and objectives. Therefore, research on the impact of teacher education policies on the effectiveness of teacher educators becomes essential to inform further decisions on teacher education.
This challenging agenda requires a consistent body of knowledge on teacher educators. Nevertheless research on teacher educators faces some specific difficulties, such as the various ways teacher educators are recruited in different countries, which is often associated with different educational and training systems. In fact, as stressed by Hamilton & Clandinin (2011), there is no universal definition of how and who can become a teacher educator. Adding to this there is the diversity of teaching profession itself and the various conceptual and theoretical benchmarks framing the studies on teacher educators.
This set of conditions associated with the prediction of a rise of studies on teacher educators over the next years makes it necessary to invest on reviewing the existing research studies. This paper will focus on the presentation and discussion of a review of literature on teacher educators published between 2000 and 2013, which was conducted aiming to organize and inspire future studies and publications, but also policy decisions on teacher education. Presentation and discussion will focus on the theoretical basis of the revised studies, special attention being given to theoretical frameworks concerning teacher educators professional identity, as they simultaneously considerer the impact of individual and contextual factors framing teacher educators’ positions and dispositions. In fact they bring together both biographical and contextual aspects of being a teacher educator (Dubar, 1997) and they allow to consider the context as an ecological system as it is defined by Bronfenbrenner (1979), i.e., as a system that includes interactions between the macro, medium, and micro levels, as well as the interactions among them.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, M.A: Harvard University Press. Cochran-Smith, M. (2003). Learning and unlearning: The education of teacher educators. Teaching And Teacher Education, 19(1), 5-28. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0742051X02000914 Dubar, C. (1997). A socialização: Construção das identidades sociais e profissionais. Porto: Porto Editora. Hamilton, M., & Clandinin, J. (2011). Unpacking our assumptions about teacher educators around the world. Teaching & Teacher Education, 27, 243-244. Retrieved from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0742051X10002003/1-s2.0-S0742051X10002003main.pdf?_tid=e4a95bee040311e2b7ed00000aab0f02&acdnat=1348242734_800f429508f1bbae384d20baccbc2cb1 Korthagen, F. (2010). How teacher education can make a difference. Journal of Education for Teaching, 36(4), 407-423, retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/02607476.2010.513854 on 14.5.12. Koster, B., & Dengerink, J. (2001). Towards a professional standard for dutch teacher educators. European Journal Of Teacher Education, 24(3), 343-354. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=fe3f7342-8de8-4a0b-a793-ad2c4310a5b1%40sessionmgr111&vid=5&hid=126 Koster, B., & Dengerink, J. (2001). Towards a professional standard for dutch teacher educators. European Journal Of Teacher Education, 24(3), 343-354. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=fe3f7342-8de8-4a0b-a793-ad2c4310a5b1%40sessionmgr111&vid=5&hid=126 Koster, B., Dengerink, J., Korthagen, F., & Lunenberg, M. (2008). Teacher educators working on their own professional development: Goals, activities and outcomes of a project for the professional development of teacher educators. Teachers And Teaching: Theory And Practice, 14(5-6), 567-587. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=3827b248-72b4-4d7584fe-45c4062a4af0%40sessionmgr13&vid=56&hid=110 Margolin, I. (2011). Professional development of teacher educators through a “transitional space”: A surprising outcome of a teacher education program. Teacher Education Quarterly, 38(3), 7-25. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f343dd1a-8ff8-40f1-a2e8-adb1c1424a4e%40sessionmgr15&vid=28&hid=17 Polkinghorne, D. E. (1995). Narrative configuration in qualitative analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 8(1), 5-23 Robinson, M. (2003). Teacher education policy in South Africa: The voice of teacher educators. Journal Of Education For Teaching, 29(1), 19-34. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=fe3f7342-8de8-4a0b-a793-ad2c4310a5b1%40sessionmgr111&vid=7&hid=13 Smith, K. (2003). So, what about the professional development of teacher educators? European Journal Of Teacher Education, 26(2), 201-215. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=fe3f7342-8de8-4a0b-a793-ad2c4310a5b1%40sessionmgr111&vid=18&hid=13 Shulman, L.S. (2005). Conocimiento y enseñanza: fundamentos de la nueva reforma. Profesorado. Revista de currículum y formación del profesorado, 9(2), 1-30, retrieved from http://www.ugr.es/local/recfpro/Rev92ART1.pdf on 12.08.09. Tardif, M. (2002). Saberes docentes e formação profissional. 2ed. Petrópolis: Vozes. Zabalza, M. A. (2004). O ensino universitário – seu cenário e seus protagonistas. Porto Alegre: ARTMED.
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