01 SES 04 B, Professional Learning
Internationally, the conviction that excellent teaching is an essential ingredient for success in terms of student achievement in schools continues to be strongly promoted (Elmore, 2002; Day et al., 2007; Sahlberg, 2007, Hargreaves & Fullan, 2013;). Drawing on data from countries in Asia, Northern America and Europe, a recent OECD report to the USA (OECD 2011), entitled, Developing Capacity at the Point of Delivery (ibid:235 – 240), identifies teacher recruitment, preparation and on-going professional development as crucial to establishing high quality teaching. Such concerns around teacher quality have preoccupied policy makers from around the globe at the International Summits on the Teaching Profession that have been held each year from 2011.
The imperative, to improve the quality of each teacher’s professional learning over her/his career, appears to be straightforward but it rapidly evolves into a far more complex prescription when it comes to implementation.
The study described in this paper undertakes to explore this complexity:
a) by examining what the terms “career” and “professional learning”
may be taken to mean; and
b) using the framework that results from a) as a basis for analysing the implementation strategies devised to promote career long learning amongst teachers in the context of a particular state schooling system within the UK.
Through this case study the authors aim to critically examine some of the effects and implications that the implementation of career long learning has upon the various organisations and agencies that have a stake in this particular reform.
The paper begins by considering evidence from the literature with regard to the conceptualisation of a teaching career from three different perspectives: how it is experienced by teachers (Hubermann, 1993; Day et al., 2007); as a form of progression in professional practice (Shulman, 1987; Reeves et al. 1998, Eraut, 2002; Shulman & Sato, 2006; Timperley et al., 2008) and as a set of structures within the workplace (Darling-Hammond,1995; Scribner, 1999; Gould et al, 2007,). It is argued that these three perspectives give rise, in their turn, to varying views of the purpose and nature of professional learning, and, in particular, raise questions as to why and how teachers might find it worthwhile to engage in the process.
Using this framing the paper goes on to examine how the implementation of ‘career-long professional learning’ for teachers is being approached as part of the the recommendations of the review of teacher education in Scotland - Teaching Scotland’s Future (Donaldson 2010). This is most visible in a new Standard for Career Long Professional Learning, introduced as part of a review of professional standards for teachers. It also underpins a new scheme to ensure teachers are keeping up to date with their own learning and development. In Scotland this initiative is ‘Professional Update’ though in other systems it is known, perhaps more controversially, as relicensing or reaccreditation.
Setting these planned reforms in the context of teacher education policy following the devolution of powers to the Scottish Government in 1999 (O’Brien, 2011) the study focuses on the implications that the strategies chosen to support career-long professional development have for the various agencies and actors involved. The paper looks at the nature of the inter-organisational effects that implementation is having, and arguably may have, on universities, local authorities, the General Teaching Council, schools and teachers. In particular it raises points for discussion as to whether or not the strategies adopted are likely to improve the capacity of the system to respond effectively to the goal of improving the quality of teaching in Scottish schools.
Asia Society (2013) Teacher Quality: The 2013 International Summit on the Teaching Profession Available on line at http://asiasociety.org/files/teachingsummit2013.pdf (accessed 7th July 2013) Asia Society (2012) Teaching and Leadership for the Twenty First Century The 2012 International Summit on the Teaching Profession. Available online at http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/internationaled/teaching-summit-2012.html (accessed 8th September 2012). Asia Society (2011) Improving Teacher Quality around the World: The International Summit on the Teaching Profession. Available online at http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/internationaled/teaching-summit-2011.html (accessed 20th April 2012). Darling-Hammond,L.(1995) Re-structuring Schools of Student Success. Daedalus 124(4) 153-162 Day,C.Sammons,P.Stobart,G. Kington,A. and Gu,Q.(2007) Teachers Matter: Connecting Lives, Work and Effectiveness. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Donaldson,G.(2010) Teaching Scotland’s Future: Report of a Review of Teacher Education in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Elmore,R.F. (2002) Bridging the Gap Between Standards and Achievement: The Imperative for Professional Development in Education. Washington: Albert Shankar Institute Eraut,M. (2002) Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence. London Routledge Gould, D. Drey,N & Berridge, E.J. (2007) Nurses’ Experiences of Continuing Professional Development. Nurse Education Today. 27(6) 602-609 Hargreaves,A. & Fullan,M.(2012) Professional Capital: Transforming Teaching in Every School. New York: Teachers College Press Huberman,M. (1993) The Lives of Teachers. London: Cassell O’Brien,J. (2011) Continuing Professional Development for Scottish Teachers: Tensions in Policy and Practice. Professional Development in Education. 37(5) 777-792 OECD (2009) Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS Paris:OECD OECD (2011) Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for the United States. OECD:Paris Powell, L.(2002) Shedding a Tier: Flattening Organisational Structures and Employee Empowerment. International Journal of Educational Management 16 (1)54-59 Reeves,J. Forde,C. Casteel,V & Lynas, R.(1998) Developing a Model of Practice: Designing a Framework for School Leadership and Management. School Leadership and Management 18(2) 185-196 Sahlberg,P.(2007) Education Policies for Raising Student Learning: The Finnish Approach. Journal of Education Policy. 22(2) 147-171 Scribner,J.P. (1999) Professional Development: Untangling the Influence of Work Context on Teacher Learning. Education Administration Quarterly. 35(2) 238-266. Shulman, J.H. & Sato,M. (2006) Mentoring Teachers Toward Excellence: Supporting and Developing Highly Qualified Teachers. ERIC Shulman,L. (1987) Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review. 57 (1) 1-23 Timperley,H. Wilson, A. Barrer, H. & Fung,I. (2008) Teacher Professional Learning and Development. International Academy of Education Educational Practices Series -18. Brussels: International Academy of Education.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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