24 SES 12, The Meta-Curriculum in Mathematics: The Aspiration, Occurrence and Promotion of Higher-Order Thinking in Mathematics Classrooms Internationally
Through classroom discourse, frequently prompted by teacher questions, students are recruited as participants in a process of socially performed reflection. Teachers use sequences of questions for modelling reflective behaviour and thereby support the development of students’ reflection strategies. But, questions do not necessarily lead to reflection. “Funnel” questions (Bauersfeld, 1980) are less useful for provoking student thinking. If the teacher doesn’t get the expected answer, he simplifies the question step by step, so that at least the question will be answered (Brodie, 2011). This investigation used video, questionnaire and interview data from the Learner’s Perspective Study (Clarke, 2006) to study reflection in the classrooms of three mathematics teachers in each of four different cultural settings: Australia, Germany, Japan, USA. The following stratified forms of social reflection were observable in the classrooms: Review, Elaboration, and Summarization. The different forms were not observed in equal measure in the twelve classrooms. The reflection events of review in Australian, Japanese and US-classrooms, elaboration in German and US-classrooms, and the summarization activities of the Japanese teachers had the capacity to promote the use of reflection sequences in support of students’ learning. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of strategies for the promotion of student reflection internationally.
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