22 SES 11 D, University Teachers and Their Conceptions, Emotions and Understandings
The relationship between research and teaching is considered as a defining characteristic of higher education (Healey, 2014). The current literature pays much attention to ways to improve and understand the relationship between research and teaching (Malcolm, 2014). One of the possible factors influencing teachers’ choices to integrate research in their teaching are teachers’ research conceptions (Brew, 2012). Research conceptions are thought to have a powerful influence on teachers’ teaching practices, in particular teachers’ research integration practices (Brew, 2012; Visser-Wijnveen, van Driel, van der Rijst, Verloop, & Visser, 2010). Although research conceptions (e.g., Kiley & Mullins, 2005; Griffioen, 2013) and research integration practices (e.g., Zimbardi & Myatt, 2012; Verburgh, 2013) have been separately well explored, there is a paucity of evidence illustrating direct links between research conceptions and research-integration practices (Authors, 2014).
Building on the ideas of Norton, Richardson, Hartley, Newstead, and Mayes (2005) concerning the relationship between teachers’ teaching conceptions and teaching practices, a framework was elaborated to analyse the relationship between teachers’ research conceptions and teaching practices (Authors, 2014). The framework distinguishes between teachers’ general research conceptions and contextualised research conceptions. General research conceptions are teachers‘ overall ideas about defining attributes of research. Contextualised research conceptions reveal the educational interpretation of the defining research attributes for the students of the teacher. Teachers’ contextualised research conceptions stem from the interaction between general research conceptions and teachers’ specific teaching context. Our study illuminated three categories of general research attributes: Research steps, Qualities of research processes, and Qualities of researchers, each consisting of different subcategories. When teachers considered their students, they reinterpreted their general research conceptions by making two differentiations. They differentiated on the one hand on the level of mastery of the research attributes, distinguishing between understanding or performing research attributes, and on the other hand they differentiated between the target of research attributes, distinguishing between a focus on scientific disciplines or a focus on professional settings.
A classification scheme to identify teachers’ research integration practices is also available. It is based on two perspectives in those practices: a focus on research processes and a focus on research results (Authors, 2014). Eight meaningful research integration practices are distinguished: 1. Facts, 2. Scientific Facts, 3. Research-based facts, 4. Research methods, 5. Segments of research, relevant for students, 6. Segments of research, functional for discipline, 7. Full research study, relevant for students and 8. Full research study, functional for discipline. Results indicate that in their studies students are confronted with very different research integration practices.
While conceptions on the one hand and practices on the other hand can be described, the ultimate question about the relationship between teachers’ research conceptions and their research integration practices remains unanswered. The present study therefore investigates the interplay between teachers’ general and contextualised research conceptions and their research integration practices by studying in an integrated way teachers’ general and contextualized research conceptions as well as their research integration practices.
Authors, (2014). Brew, A. (2012). Teaching and research: New relationships and their implications for inquiry-based teaching and learning in higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 31, 101-114. DOI:10.1080/07294360.2012.642844 Griffioen, D. M. E. (2013). Research in higher professional education: A staff perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam. Healey, M., Jenkins, A., & Lea, J. (2014). Developing research-based curricula in college-based higher education. York: The Higher Education Academy. Retrieved from: http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/heinfe/developing_research-based_curricula_in_cbhe_14.pdf Heggen, K., Karseth, B., & Kyvik, S. (2010). The relevance of research for the improvement of education and professional practice. In S. Kyvik & B. Lepori (Eds.), The research mission of higher education institutions outside the university sector (pp. 45-60). Dordrecht: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9244-2_3 Kiley, M., & Mullins, G. (2005). Supervisors’ conceptions of research: What are they? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 49, 245-262. DOI:10.1080/00313830500109550 Kyvik, S., & Lepori, B. (2010). Research in higher education institutions outside the university sector. In S. Kyvik & B. Lepori (Eds.), The research mission of higher education institutions outside the university sector (pp. 3-21). Dordrecht: Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4020-9244-2_1 Malcolm, M. (2014). A critical evaluation of resent progress in understanding the role of the research-teaching link in higher education. Higher Education, 62, 289-301. DOI: 10.1007/s10734-013-9650-8 Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. An Expanded sourcebook (2 ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Verburgh, A. (2013). Research Integration in Higher Education: Prevalence and Relationship with Critical Thinking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. KU Leuven, Leuven. Visser-Wijnveen, G. J., van Driel, J. H., van der Rijst, R. M., Verloop, N., & Visser, A. (2010). The ideal research-teaching nexus in the eyes of academics: Building profiles. Higher Education Research & Development, 29, 195-210. DOIi:10.1080/07294360903532016 Zimbardi, K. & Myatt, P. (2014). Embedding undergraduate research experiences within the curriculum: a cross-disciplinary study of the key characteristics guiding implementation, Studies in Higher Education, 39 (2), 233-250. DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2011.651448
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