ERG SES D 12, Schools and Education
Achievement goal theory is one of the most prominent motivational frameworks in educational contexts (Ames, 1992). According to achievement goal theory, achievement goals are the reasons or purposes that students possess for approaching, engaging, selecting and persisting in achievement situations (Ames, 1992; Elliot, 1999; Pintrich & Schunk, 2002). Early research on achievement motivation distinguished two types of goals namely, mastery goals and performance goals (Ames, 1992), while more recent research has suggested four achievement goals: mastery approach and avoidance goals and performance approach and avoidance goals (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). Mastery approach goals emphasizes learning, and deep understanding, while mastery avoidance goals focus on avoiding misunderstanding and avoiding not learning. Performance approach goals emphasize showing abilities to others and getting the highest grade, whereas performance avoidance goals focus on avoiding looking stupid and getting the worst grades (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Pintrich & Schunk, 2002).
Goal theory is not only related to students but also it involves classroom and school goal structures (Ames, 1992). A mastery goal structure is described as an educational context where learning and understanding is important, effort and improvement are appreciated and valued (Wolters, 2004). A performance goal structure is an educational environment which emphasizes students achievement is more important than effort and doing better than others and displaying it is more appreciated than learning the material deeply (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2013). Similar to students, the teachers are also exposed to the goal structures at the educational institutions and they receive messages about the values and policies prevalent at schools (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2011a).
Previous research on goal structure mostly focused on the relationships between classroom goal structures and students affective, cognitive and behavioral responses (e.g., Wolters, 2004). Compared to studies which are related to student and classroom goals, studies concerning the influence of school goal structures on the perceptions of teachers are rare (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2011). However, there are studies indicating the relationships between crucial teacher variables such as self-efficacy (e.g., Devos, Dupries & Paquay 2012), job satisfaction and work engagement (Skaalvik & Skaalvik 2011).
An important construct in teacher motivation, self-efficacy is defined as beliefs teachers have about their skills to affect student learning (Caprara, Barbaranelli, Steca & Malone, 2006). Teachers holding high levels of self-efficacy beliefs are more likely to apply innovative teaching acts in the classroom, to use classroom management strategies effectively and utilize appropriate teaching methods which foster students' autonomy (Cousins & Walker, 1995), to undertake responsibility of students with special learning needs (Allinder, 1994), and to keep students concentrated on task than teachers holding relatively low levels of teaching self-efficacy beliefs (Podell & Soodak, 1993). Devos, Dupries and Paquay (2012) found that school goal structure predicted beginning teachers’ self-efficacy and feelings of depression.
A different but a work context related construct, job satisfaction is characterized as a positive or negative sense of fulfillment about one’s work (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010). Caprara, Barbaranelli, Borgogni, and Steca (2003) stated that job satisfaction a “decisive element” that is influential on teachers’ attitudes and performance on teaching and found self-efficacy as prominent predictor to teachers’ job satisfaction. A study by Skaalvik & Skaalvik (2011) revealed that while mastery goal structure was positively correlated with job satisfaction, performance goal structure was negatively correlated.
In light of the abovementioned literature, this study aims to explore the relationships among science teachers’ perceptions of school goal structures (mastery and performance), science teacher self-efficacy and science teachers’ job satisfaction. Accordingly, following research question was generated:
What are the relationships among science teachers’ perceptions of school goal structures (mastery and performance), self-efficacy and job satisfaction?
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students' academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44(6), 473–490. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2006.09. 001 Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L., & Steca, P. (2003). Efﬁcacy beliefs as determinants of teachers’ job satisfaction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 821–832. Devos, C., Dupriez, V., & Paquay, L. (2012). Does the social working environment predict beginning teachers’ self-efficacy and feelings of depression?. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(2), 206-217. Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American psychologist, 41(10), 1040. Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 149-169. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2X2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501-519. Podell, D., & Soodak, L. (1993). Teacher efficacy and bias in special education referrals. Journal of Educational Research, 86(4), 247–253. Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D.H. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Columbus, OH: Merrill. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 611–625. doi:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.111 Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(4), 1059–1069. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2009. 11.001 Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(6), 1029–1038. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2011. 04.001 Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011a). Teachers' feeling of belonging, exhaustion, and job satisfaction: the role of school goal structure and value consonance. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24(4), 369-385. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2013). School goal structure: associations with students’ perceptions of their teachers as emotionally supportive, academic self-concept, intrinsic motivation, effort, and help seeking behavior. International Journal of Educational Research, 61, 5-14. Wolters, C. A. (2004). Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement. Journal of educational psychology, 96(2), 236.
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.