07 SES 06 B, Intercultural Education in School Practice
The paper will present and discuss our field study of everyday life in a Danish fifth grade classroom. Our aim has been to observe, describe and analyze those everyday practices in the classroom that ultimately result in offering students different positions, identities and opportunities for participation.
Our goal is to create knowledge about the way difference is constructed and managed in schools. How is the concept of ‘difference’ conceived of, produced and reproduced through everyday practices and how is the management of difference embedded in school culture. Further our goal is to create knowledge about the consequences that occur for different students as a result of specific ways of managing differences by teachers.
In 1993 the Danish parliament passed an Education Act that prohibits schools from organizing classes based on student’s achievements. Thus, since 1993 the Danish school class has become a permanent organizational group to which the same children belong throughout the ten years of compulsory schooling. The 1993-Act represented a final step in implementing a non-divided public school. And along with a substantial decrease in the number of examinations and grades given to pupils, the 1993-Act has been seen as a milestone in the democratization of schooling in Denmark.
Numerous evaluations have documented that classroom practices have undergone minimal change regarding accommodation to diversity among learners since the passing of the law (EVA 2004, 2008, 2011). Furthermore it has been documented that Danish schools to a lesser degree than our neighboring countries succeed in creating educational success and opportunity for students from nonacademic families as well as for students from ethnic minority families (PISA 2012, PISA etnisk 2012).
So, on the one hand we see politically motivated expectations towards schools to create better results among an increasingly diverse group of students. On the other hand we see a general focus among teachers towards maintaining a sense of community through common tasks, assignments and evaluation standards (Jørgensen & Mottelson 2014). Thus, our research questions point towards the balance between common and individual expectations and needs in the context of the school class.
Our goal is to scrutinize school culture in order to better understand how everyday practices in classrooms organize participation in ways that may counteract the compliance to diverse needs of different students. Subsequently, our main question of research is:
What is it in school culture that lays out a framework for human interaction where teachers orient their focus towards domains that seemingly do not provide the grounds for or opportunities to develop educational practices that can accommodate to student’s individual needs?
Our overall theoretic stance perceives of the school as a societal institution that as such provides a specific context that frames participants’ perceptions and practices and preconstructs participants’ scope of invention of practice in certain ways. It is our belief that a more clear understanding of the demands and constraints regarding human behavior in this specific setting could prove to be a first step towards addressing counterproductive elements of school culture and practice with regard to accommodating diversity among learners and counteracting marginalization.
Our project has the specific context of the Danish public school in focus, but our findings will be of broader interest as they have bearing upon a more general perspective of inclusive education. Over the past years the question of differentiated instruction and the school’s role in creating more equal educational opportunity has been a general topic of interest in Denmark and internationally. This interest has intensified as demands regarding developing inclusive education have become commonplace. Our project aims towards contributing to the knowledge base needed for increasing equity in education.
Anderson, Sally (2000) Chronic Proximity – a “natural” school practice, Nordnytt nr. 78 Anderson, Sally (2000) I en klasse for sig. København, Munksgaard Bauman, Zygmunt (2001) Community. Seeking Safety in an Insecure World. Polity Press Becker, Howard S. (1963/1991) Outsiders. Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. The free Press Broady, Donald (1979) Progressivismens rötter, I: Unge Pædagoger A 21/22 1979 Bourdieu, Pierre & Passeron, Jean-Claude (1977) Reproduction in Education, Society an Culture Sage Publications Bourdieu, Pierre (1986) Distinction. A social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Routledge Bourdieu et al. (1991) The Craft of Sociology. Epistemological Preliminaries. New York, de Gruyter Durkheim, Emile (1895/2000) Den sociologiske metodes regler. København, Hans Reitzels Forlag EVA: Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut (2004) Undervisningsdifferentiering i folkeskolen EVA: Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut (2008) Arbejdet med elevplaner EVA: Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut (2011) Undervisningsdifferentiering som bærende pædagogisk princip Ehn, Billy (2004) Skal vi lege tiger? Århus, Klim Forlag Ehn, Billy og Löfgren Orvar (2006) Kulturanalyser. Århus, Klim Forlag Fairclough, Norman (2003) Analyzing Discource. Textual analysis for social research. Routledge Goffman, Erving (1963a) Behaviour in Public Places. Notes on the Social Organization of Gatherings. New York, The Free Press Goffman, Erving (1963b) Stigma. Notes on the management of spoiled Identity. Simon & Schuster Hastrup, Kirsten (1992) Det antropologiske project. Om forbløffelse. København, Gyldendal Hultqvist, Kenneth and Dahlberg, Gunilla (2001) Governing the Child in the New Millennium. RoutledgePalmer Jackson, Phillip (1969) Life in Classrooms. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Jørgensen og Mottelson (2014) Klasseledelse, inklusion og differentiering. Ålborg, Dafolo Kvale, Steinar (1994) InterView. En instroduktion til det kvalitative forskningsinterview. København, Hans Reitzels Forlag Laclau, Ernesto & Mouffe, Chantal (1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. London verso McDermott, Ray and Varenne, Hervé (1999) Successful Failure. The School America Builds. Westview Press Mehan, Hugh (1979) Learning Lessons. Social Organization in the Classroom. Harvard University Press Pedersen, Anne-Julie Boesen (2008) Forskelligheder og fællesskab 2008, Børnerådet PISA 2012: Egelund, Niels (red.)(2013) PISA 2012 – Danske unge i international sammenligning. KORA PISA etnisk 2012: Christensen et. Al. (2012) PISA 2012 med fokus på unge med indvandrerbaggrund. KORA Rose, Nicolas (1999) Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge University Press Silverman, David (2001) Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analyzing Talk, Text and Interaction. Sage Publications Spradley, James P. (1979) The Ethnographic Interview. Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc. Wenger, Etienne (1998) Communities of Practice. Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge University Press
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.