ERG SES C 10, Health and Education
We intend to present, discuss and reflect about the theoretical framework and the methodologies that guide this PhD research. With this project we seek to know and understand which facets and meanings education plays in the hospital, particularly in pediatric oncology, from children’s individual and collective experiences with other children and adults during their hospitalization. By taking the importance of the voices of hospitalized children with cancer - their interests, anxieties, perspectives and critical opinions – it is expected to contribute to the production of new knowledge concerning their own reality and the reality of hospitalization, and to recognize the relevance of this knowledge to contribute to the improvement of their quality of life and their childhood experiences in the hospital situation.
The main analysis focus on the reflection of broader issues such as human development, child health, citizenship of children in hospitals and practices and educational policies in health. According to advances in medicine, particularly in pediatrics, and pediatric oncology, there have been intensive and incisive works in combating child mortality. Despite studies in health seek to improve the well-being of the hospital patients, just a few of those focuses on the child's perspective. In this regard, it is pertinent to study the children in this context, because despite being in the condition of “child patients” they also assume a role as social actors with ability to participate in their own treatment process and influence others, to be informed and heard about the procedures to be performed.
Children here represented constitute a particular group, with certain specific biosocial issues: they are children with prolonged illness (cancer) who are hospitalized. It is important to stress the relevance of this point, for these children, even in the hospital, jointly assume the social roles of child-son (in its relationship with parents), child-student (in his relationship with teachers and educators), child-patient (in its relationship with health professionals and with the institution), child-peer (in its relationship with the other children in the same situation of cancer prolonged illness in hospital).
It’s in these relationships that the educational issues emerge, essentially because the dynamics that articulate biological vital needs with social functions and cultural meanings (Fullat, 1983). By establishing relationships with adults (doctors, educators/teachers, volunteers, family) or with peers, typically in medical moments, but also other intentionally teaching and also other inherently playful, children are involved in multiple and sometimes simultaneous, educational processes, formal, non-formal and informal (Araújo, 2011). It should be noted that education in childhood leave deep marks in child development to provide moments of learning, self-knowledge, but also playful, fun, discovery and exploitation of new situations (Sarmento, 2004). In the hospital context children experience childhood according to the specifics of the environment in which they operate, taking into account the routine changes, biological changes they are subjected to and the transformations that his life suffered and the contingencies and unexpected events that may occur. Best understood as well as the formal educational process in the hospital environment tends to be seen as "a time when the child choose what you want to do, without the same concern with the need to provide structured learning as in uptime educational / teaching "(Joint Order No. 300/97 of 9 September).
Araújo, Marta (2011). A Doença Oncológica na Criança. Adaptação e Bem-Estar Psicológico das Mães, dos Seus Filhos e Relação entre Ambos. Lisboa: Coisas de Ler. Convenção dos Direitos da Criança (1989) e ratificada por Portugal em 21 de Setembro de 1990. Disponível online em http://www.unicef.pt/docs/pdf_publicacoes/convencao_direitos_crianca2004.pdf Corsaro, William (1997). The Sociology of Childhood. London: Pine Forge. Ferreira, Manuela (2010). “- Ela é nossa prisioneira!” – Questões teóricas, epistemológicas e ético-metodológicas a propósito dos processos de obtenção da permissão das crianças pequenas numa pesquisa etnográfica. Reflexão e Ação. Santa Cruz do Sul: Universidade de Santa Cruz, 18 (2), 151-182. Fullat, Octavi (1983).Filosofias de la Educación. Barcelona:CEAC. Instituto de Apoio à Criança (2004). Carta da criança hospitalizada & Anotações. Leiden: European Association for Children in Hospital. James, Allison e Prout, Alan (1990). Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood, Contemporary Issues in the Study of Childhood. London, The Falmer Press. Joint Order No. 300/97 of 9 September. Sarmento, Manuel Jacinto (2004). As culturas da Infância nas Encruzilhadas da Segunda Modernidade. In Manuel Jacinto Sarmento e Ana Beatriz Cerisara (Orgs.). Crianças e Miúdos: perspectivas sociopedagógicas da infância e educação (pp 9-34). Porto: Edições ASA.
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