22 SES 06 B, Transition of Students and Professional Identities
On arrival in the UK, international students are at a crucial stage in their academic careers, transitioning from study or work in their home countries to study at a British university. The paper reports on research carried out with a group of international students coming from a variety of different backgrounds and countries, including China, Thailand and the Middle East. These students all participated in a pre-sessional academic English course which took place during the summer of 2014 and is essentially a gate-keeping course. Students are required to pass this course in order to demonstrate their achievement of an appropriate level of language proficiency study skills required for degree level study. It is therefore potentially a stressful and difficult time as unsuccessful students may not be permitted to proceed to their degree programmes. This led to the first research question: What issues typically face international students when transitioning to academic study in the UK?
Summative feedback forms are used in academia for gathering data on course quality and student understanding. This method of obtaining feedback has been widely criticised as an inaccurate evaluation of teaching effectiveness (Marks, 2012), however, student feedback continues to be elicited at the end of many courses in order to attempt to find out any other issues which could be addressed in order to improve the student experience for the next cohort, requiring students to answer a series of questions based on the course they have already finished or are soon to finish. Feedback forms are notorious for being homogenised and limiting and thus the data captured is often neutral and lacking in tacit emotional responses. Feedback forms are also well known for their leading questions, strange Likert scales and often unfathomable pedagogical questions that allow for limited response (Emery, Kramer, & Tian, 2003). As an alternative or additional method of collecting student opinion, this paper contrasts summative feedback forms with a method of collaborative drawing; rich pictures (RP). The RP is a familiar tool used in computing information systems to gather understanding about human activity for system design but has never been used in education as a student feedback tool. The RP assists the exploration of different world views within a complex situation. The RP is a physical picture drawn by a variety of hands which encourages discussion and debate for groups and allows them to arrive at an agreed understanding which makes it a powerful device in participatory processes. This led to the second research question: How does data collected from a traditional student course evaluation feedback form compare with a collaborative drawing exercise as an alternative method of understanding the transitional issues and challenges international students may face?
Student feedback forms were completed individually by 224 students belonging to an international student cohort on an academic English pre-sessional English course at a Scottish University. The data from these traditional feedback forms is analysed alongside 19 rich pictures drawn collaboratively in groups of four or six by the same student cohort.
RPs present a contemporary and innovative approach to enable a holistic level of student understanding and a more in-depth analysis of the issues international students may face when transitioning from one educational or workplace context to another educational context in a different country. Findings highlight the value of collaborative drawing to better understand the student experience and support the claim that it would seem that the way in which universities collect international student opinion data needs to be accurate, non-asserting, relevant and above all multifaceted.
Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2012). How People Use Rich Pictures to Help Them Think. Systemic Practice and Action Research. Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2012a). Resilient Participation: Saving the human planet. Abingdon: Routledge. Berg, T. (2013, 05). Understanding Iconography: A Method to Allow Rich Picture Interpretation to Improve. Edinburgh, PhD thesis: Heriot-Watt Research Repository. Retrieved from http://www.ros.hw.ac.uk/bitstream/10399/2727/1/BergT_0114_macs.pdf Dunegan, K., & Hrivnak, M. (2003). Characteristics of mindless teaching evaluations and the moderating effects of image compatibility. Journal of Management Education, 27(3), 280–303. Emery, C., Kramer, T., & Tian, R. (2003). Return to academic standards: a critique of student evaluations of teaching effectiveness. . Quality Assurance in Education, 11(1), 37-46. Felton, J., Mitchell, J., & Stinson, M. (2004). Web-based student evaluations of professors: the relations between perceived quality,easiness and sexiness. Assesssment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1). Gray, M., & Bergmann, B. (2003). Student teaching evaluations: inaccurate, demeaning, misused",. Academe Online, 89(5). Greenwald, A. G., & Gilmore, G. M. (1997). Grading leniency is a removable contaminant of student ratings. American Psychologist, 52, 1209-1217. Harvey, L., Geall, V., Mazelan, P., Moon, S., & Plummer, L. (1995). Student satisfaction: The 1995 report on the student experience at UCE. Birmingham, University of Central England: Centre for Research into Quality. Harvey, L., Plimmer, L., Moon , S., & Geall, V. (1997). Student satisfaction manual. Buckingham: SRHE & Open University Press. Kung, S., Giles, D., & Hagan, B. (2013). Applying an Appreciative Inquiry Process to a Course Evaluation in Higher Education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 25(1), 29-37. Marks, P. (2012). Silent Partners: student course evaluations and the construction of pedagogical worlds. Canadian Journal for Studies in Discourse and Writing, 24(1). Narasimhan, K. (2001). Improving the climate of teaching sessions: the use of evaluations by students and instructors. Quality in Higher Education, 7, 179-190. Richardson, J. T. (2005). Students' perceptions of academic quality and approaches to studying in distance education. British Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 1-21. Sidhu, M., Jani, H., & Ramesh, s. (2001). Critical Evaluation of Rich Pictures as a Pictorial Technique in SSM for Resolving Unstructured Problems. National Conference on research and developement in Computer Science, 137-143. Wiers-Jenssen, J., Stensaker, B., & Grogaard, J. (2002). Student satisfaction: towards an empirical deconstruction of the concept. Quality in Higher Education, 8, 183-195.
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