ERG SES H 09, ICT and Education
The advancements in education with technology are far behind when compared to other areas (Sharma, 2011). Because of this underdevelopment in technology integration into education, research on this issue has gained a great importance. Researchers all around the world have been trying to develop the best practices of technology integration and help teachers develop required technological skills. During the earlier years of the discussion of technology integration, the focus was on technological skills of teachers ignoring the pedagogy and content area skills; however, then, educators realized that knowledge of technology itself does not guarantee promoting students' learning effectively and the focus shifted to meaningful integration of technology into teaching (Graham et al., 2009). The International Society for Technology in Education’s (ISTE) stated that a teacher should meet the following standards and performance indicators: “(1) demonstrate a sound understanding of technology operations and concepts; (2) plan and design effective learning environments and experiences supported by technology; (3) implement curriculum plans that include methods and strategies for applying technology to maximize student learning; (4) apply technology to facilitate a variety of effective assessment and evaluation strategies; (5) use technology to enhance their productivity and professional practice; (6) understand the social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of technology in PK–12 schools and apply that understanding in practice” (ISTE, 2008, p. 9).
Since the importance given to technology integration into education has gained a great importance in recent years, many studies have been conducted to propose a theoretical framework. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework –which has been accepted and studies widely– proposes that effective teaching with technology requires meaningful combination of content, technology and pedagogy, and emphasizes the relationships, connections, strengths and weaknesses between and among these components (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). TPACK suggests that there is no single best way for technology integration into education, but “integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts (Koehler, Mishra, & Cain, 2013, p.14). In this framework, knowledge of content (C), pedagogy (P) and technology (T) are not isolated bodies of knowledge; they are all interrelated and form teachers’ main knowledge.
However, the discussions and the attempts related to technology integration, does not guarantee its implication in actual teaching practice. The current situation suggests that teachers and schools do not adopt digital technologies effectively; teachers are slow, skeptical and conservative about integrating technology into their classroom practices (Petko, 2012). The efforts related to technology integration at curriculum, policy and school levels does not mean teachers are ready to accept this innovation. Research suggests that teachers’ beliefs might influence their level of technology integration and the level of technology integration might influence student achievement (Christensen, & Knezek, 2008; Kim et al., 2013); teachers have the key role in technology integration process
For this reason, it is important to identify how future teachers think about technology integration into education. For this reason, the present study will investigate the relationship between PTs’ self-perceptions of their TPACK level and whether their self-perceptions of TPACK is related to their view and intentions of technology usage. The specific research questions that guide this study are:
- What are PTs’ self-perceptions of their TPACK?
- What are PTs’ views and intentions of technology integration into education?
- Is there a significant relationship between PTs’ self-perceptions of TPACK and their views/intentions of technology integration?
- Is there a significant difference in PTs’ self-perceptions of TPACK and their views/intentions of technology integration by their departments?
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