ERG SES H 08, Practices, Sociology and Education
This paper intends to present initial data from an ongoing PhD research aimed at debating the meaning of school and the importance of schooling processes for social groups at risk of experiencing situations of inequality, discrimination and socioeconomic and cultural exclusion. The work emerges from a deconstruction of the senses of periphery and engages on the consideration of how and why students living under vulnerable conditions remain within the formal educational system. Assuming education as a right recognized in modern societies, as stated in article 26 of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, we chose two zones of a sensitive character, one in Portugal and the other one in Brazil, in order to develop our research. Our main goal is to comprehend what sense students make of school and what kind of school is available in areas known as peripheries (in geographical, social, economic, regional and global terms). We understand that access to education is a primary step regarding the application, consolidation and expansion of what we call human rights (Estevão, 2007). For that reason, school, therefore, schooling processes, should be seen as initiatives of dialogue, promoting and strengthening the voice of the various subjects who are responsible for further developing public environments where human rights are widespread. As Young (2007), we deny the closure of schools as a way of rethinking education in modern ages, preferring rather to investigate what kind of teaching and learning activities are available for youth from vulnerable contexts. In other words, our study believes it is crucial to identify what education is available, how it is offered and for whom (Freire, 1970), as a means to interpret the educational trajectories that take place in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Basically, our theoretical foundation covers studies that consider the notion of periphery beyond the sociocultural and geographical concepts; research on the intersection of youth, schooling processes and school as an institution; and, finally, scientific literature addressing the importance of students' relationships with other social actors (parents, teachers and friends) throughout the development of their educational trajectories. In terms of “periphery”, we deal with it in its specificity as a fragmentation of the urban space, a vague and non-consolidated area, where infrastructure is poor and there is lack of resources in fields concerning culture, sports and mobility (Van Zanten, 2001). Accordingly, we play with the roles of local and regional dimensions, i.e., we address the fact that the same geographical spot can redefine its representativeness and performance due to the focus implied in its reading – local, regional or global (Stoer and Araújo, 2000; Leão, 2006). In this sense, Heikkinen (2001) argues that studies considering different dynamics of reading are crucial in the interpretation of peripheries and centers, once they have potential to highlight possible new social classes’ cultures and even ways of life, phenomena quite current in blocks such as the European Union. Regarding the educational trajectories, we assume them as histories, which can only be perceived when judged along the three times of their existence – the past, the present and the future (Charlot, 2009). The meaning of school, along the educational trajectory, is built on the tension of belonging and investment, a process acquiring distinct senses in line with the level of resources a student may have available (Leão, 2006). Interestingly, despite the difficulties that certain youth publics might face, numerous studies led to the fact that disadvantaged students keep struggling to remain in formal school, a decision endorsed by families whose support has the potential to boost academic and identity development (Hall and Callery, 2003; Lahire, 2006; Singly, 2007; Fan and Williams, 2010).
Charlot, B. (2009). A relação com o saber nos meios populares. Uma investigação nos liceus profissionais de subúrbio. Porto: CIIE /Livpsic. Elliott, J. (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London: SAGE. Estevão, C. (2007). Direitos humanos, justiça e educação. Educação, Sociedade e Culturas, 25, 43-81. Fan, W., & Williams, C. M. (2010). The effects of parental involvement on students’ academic self-efficacy, engagement and intrinsic motivation. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 30 (1), 53-74. Fonseca, L. P. (2005). Vozes, silêncios e ruídos na educação escolar das raparigas. Tese de doutoramento, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury. Hall, W. A., & Callery, P. (2003). Balancing personal and family trajectories: an international study of dual-earner couples with pre-school children. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40, 401-412. Heikkinen, A. (2001). The transforming peripheries of vocational education: reflections from the case of Finland. Journal of Education and Work, 14(2), 226-250. IGE - Inspeção-Geral da Educação e Ciência (2004). Índice de desenvolvimento social. Concelhos de Portugal Continental (Portaria n º 200/2004 2ª Série de 4 de Fevereiro). Available via http://www.ige.min-edu.pt/site_actividadev2/documentos/mapa.pdf. Accessed 20 Jun, 2014. Lahire, B. (2006). A cultura dos indivíduos. Porto Alegre: Artmed. Leão, G. M. P. (2006). Experiências da desigualdade: os sentidos da escolarização elaborados por jovens pobres. Educação e Pesquisa, 32(1), 31-48. Pereira, F. (2010). Infância, educação escolar e profissionalidade docente. Um mapeamento social dos discursos em formação inicial de professores. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. PNDU - Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento (2010). Ranking IDHM Municípios 2010. Available via http://www.pnud.org.br/atlas/ranking/Ranking-IDHM-Municipios-2010.aspx. Accessed 20 Jun 2014. Singly, F. (2007). Sociologia da família contemporânea. Rio de Janeiro: FGV. Stake, R. E. (2007). A arte de investigação com estudos de caso. Lisboa: Gulbenkian. Stoer, S. R., & Araújo, H. C. (2000). Escola e aprendizagem para o trabalho num país da (semi)periferia europeia. Porto: Instituto de Inovação Educacional. Van Zanten, A. (2001). L’ école de la périphérie. Scolarité et ségregation em banlieue. Paris: PUF. Young, M. (2007). Para que servem as escolas? Revista Educação e Sociedade, 28 (101), 1287-1302.
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