ERG SES C 04, Poster Session
This research aims to examine the directions of the changes that arts education inHungaryunderwent in 1989-2009. Since this period witnessed a fundamental structural change inHungaryalongside with the changes implemented in public education policy, we endeavour to explore the reasons behind the changes.
At the turn of the 1980’s and 90’s there was a significant political, economic and social transformation inHungary. In relation to the changes that followed the political change, the structure of education and the maintenance and funding of institutions also underwent changes. The development of arts education was significantly influenced by the transformation of public education, by statutory funding and the independence of local authorities.
Act 1993 on Public Education can be regarded as a milestone in arts education because through the act, music and arts education became parts of public education, whereby institutions gained a more reliable future vision. As an effect of the changes, the role of music education and later also of arts education grew, while there began a renewal and modernisation process. Music as a branch of art broadened to include the genres of jazz, folk and electroacoustic music as well. Curricula were worked out for the branches of fine arts, dance arts, theatrical arts and puppetry as well. There were also changes in the names of institutions. From the academic year 2000/2001, music schools, too, started to use the name primary arts education institutions. Decree 20/2012 (VIII. 31.) of the Ministry of Human Resources on the operation of public education institutions and the use of names by public education institutions clearly states that institutions whose exclusive activity is music education may use the name ‘music school’, while those where other branches of arts are taught simultaneously, may only use the name ‘primary arts education institution’.
Decree 3/2002 of the Ministry of Education legislates on the processes and methods of the quality assurance of primary arts education institutions. In the academic year 2007/2008 furthermore, quality audits were started to be performed at primary arts education institutions, in the course of which legal compliance and professional work were assessed.
The number of primary arts education institutions and of students learning various arts continued to grow until the academic year 2005/2006. One of the reasons for this was a change in public administration. Newly established local authorities were allocated statutory funding only if the settlements concerned had an independent school; in the case of schools that were branches of a head school, it was the head school that received the funding. This policy encouraged smaller settlements, too, to establish arts schools. In addition, villages witnessed urbanisation, which brought about a qualitative change in the lives of settlements. Invigorating cultural life fits in well with the concept, one means for which is establishing independent arts schools. At the same time, institutions of public education faced growing financial challenges and thus tried to exclude non-profit making activities. As a consequence, various arts groups were transferred to maintenance by independent arts schools. Another reason for the popularity of primary arts education institutions is that the number of lessons in arts and skills subjects at primary schools is low so there is increased demand for the activities taught at arts schools.
Decree 3/2002 (II. 15.) of the Ministry of Education on the quality assurance and quality development of public education Decree 20/2012 (VIII. 31.) of the Ministry of Human Resources on the operation of public education institutions and the use of names by public education institutions Act LXXIX of 1993 on Public Education Homor, Istvánné (2009): Tanulmány a zeneiskolák helyzetéről a rendszerváltozástól napjainkig. (Study on the situation of music schools from the political change until today) In: Polifónia különszám: Zeneoktatásunk (special issue of the journal Polifónia on music education), Budapest, April 2009, Hungarian Music Council. In: http://www.hunmusic.hu/tanulmanyok/zeneoktatasunk_fuzet_09.pdf Hungarian Central Statistical Office (2010): Magyarország 1989-2009 A változások tükrében. (Hungary in 1989-2009 in the light of the changes), In: http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/mo/mo1989_2009.pdf Educational Authority (2012): Köznevelés Információs Rendszere. (Public education information system) In: www.kir.hu
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