14 SES 05 B, School-Related Transitions Within a Life Course Perspective III
During adolescence, peer approval and friendship intimacy become more important and the adolescent has to find a new place in a new social environment. Peers play an important role in the transition and adjustment into a new school (Pratt & George, 2005). Social goals represent the desired social outcomes an adolescent prefers either to achieve or to avoid in terms of their involvement with others (Jarvinen & Nicholls, 1996); they can be preferences to join in with others or to stay alone. These adolescent goals may also have impacts on their later social adjustment (Ryan & Shim, 2008).
Social goals have been characterized along two interpersonal dimensions: agency vs. submission and communality vs. separation. Agencyinvolves independence, authority, dominance, and appearing confident, whereassubmissive goalsrepresent a tendency to avoid difficult situations by conforming to others’ expectations. On the second dimension, communalitymeans intimacy and relational needs and separation represents concealing thoughts and emotions and keeping one’s distance from others. According to the interpersonal circumplex modelindividuals can have different combinations of these goals (e.g. Ojanen, Grönroos, & Salmivalli 2005; Locke 2000, 2003; Kiesler 1983; Wiggins 1979).
Earlier studies have shown that for preadolescents connectedness to peers and communal goals are more important than agentic goals. Boys seek agency such as status and power more than girls, who aspire instead to communality, intimacy, and prosocial goals (Rose & Rudolph 2006; Ojanen et al. 2005). Separation or avoidance goals have been shown to be associated with maladjustment, loneliness, and depression (Kuroda & Sakurai 2010; Mouratidis & Sideridis 2009) and communal goals with popularity and status among peers. There is also evidence that children’s agentic goals tend to increase more than their communal goals (Ojanen et al. 2005). It is plausible that social goals change during major life transitions that feature individual and contextual changes, such as adolescence with its major cognitive, emotional, and social changes occurring simultaneously with the educational transition from elementary to lower secondary school (Zirkel 1992; Urdan & Maehr 1995).
Both adults’ (e.g. Locke 2000, 2003) and children’s (Ojanen et al. 2005) social goals have been measured previously on the basis of combinations of agentic and separate goals. These instruments consist of eight categories (agentic, submissive, communal, separate, agentic and communal, agentic and separate, submissive and communal, submissive and separate) that provide measures of agentic and communal vector scores. Employing these instruments allows a given individual's social goals to be illustrated according to the division of social goals into the two basic dimensions of agency and communality. Besides these typological dimensions, we began to examine whether goals could be measured as individual aspects and whether they change over time. There has been scant research to date about the potential changes in adolescents’ social goals during school transition and the subsequent years in lower secondary school.
In this study we first tested a model to see whether social goals could be measured in terms of four separate factors. We analysed the construct validity and internal reliability of the scale. Secondly, we examined the longitudinal stability of each resultant factor based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Thirdly, we aimed to study the gender and time effects on social goals during lower secondary school using six measurement points.
Jarvinen, D.W. & Nicholls, J. G. (1996). Adolescents' Social Goals, Beliefs about the Causes of Social Success, and Satisfaction in Peer Relations. Developmental Psychology, 32 (3), 435-441. Kiesler, D. J. (1983) The 1982 Interpersonal Circle: A Taxonomy for Complementarity in Human Transactions. Psychological Review, 90 (3), 185-214. Kuroda, Y. & Sakurai, S. (2011). Social Goal Orientations, Interpersonal Stress, and Depressive Symptons Among Early Adolescents in Japan: A Test of the Diathesis- Stress Model Using the Trichotomous Framework of Social Goal Orientations. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 31 (2), 300-322. Locke, K. D. (2003). Status and Solidarity in Social Comparison: Agentic and Communal Values and Vertical and Horizontal Directions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84 (3), 619-631. Locke, K. D. (2000). Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values: Reliability, Validity, and Applicability to Interpersonal Problems and Personality Disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 75 (2), 249-267. Mouratidis, A.A. & Sideridis, G.D. (2009). On Social Achievement Goals: Their Relations with Peer Acceptance, Classroom Belongingness, and Perceptions of Loneliness. The Journal of Experimental Education, 77 (3), 285-307. Ojanen T., Grönroos, M., & Salmivalli C. 2005. An Interpersonal Circumplex Model of Children's Social Goals: Links with Peer-reported Behavior and Sociometric status. Developmental Psychology, 41 (5), 699-710. Pratt, S. & George, R. (2005) Transferring Friendship: Girls’ and Boys’ Friendships in the Transition from Primary to Secondary School. Children & Society, 19, 16-26. Rose, A. J. & Rudolph, K. D. (2006) A Review of Sex Differences in Peer Relationship Processes: Potential Trade-offs for the Emotional and Behavioral Development of Girls and Boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132 (1), 98-131. Ryan A.M. & Shim, S. S. (2008). An Exploration of Young Adolescents’ Social Achievement Goals and Social Adjustment in Middle School. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100 (3), 672-687. Ryan, A. M & Shin, H. (2011). Help-seeking Tendencies during Early Adolescence: An Examination of Motivational Correlates and Consequences for Achievement. Learning and Instruction, 21, 247-256. Urdan, T. C. & Maehr, M. L. (1995). Beyond a Two-goal Theory of Motivation and Achievement: A Case for Social Goals. Review of Educational Research, 65, 213-243. Wiggins, J. R. (1979). A Psychological Taxonomy of Trait-descriptive Terms: The Interpersonal Domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (3), 395-412. Zirkel, S. (1992). Developing Independence in a Life Transition: Investing the Self in the concerns of the day. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 506-521.
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.