01 SES 03 A, National Strategies for Professional Development
Most authors, regardless of their theoretical orientation (e.g., Desimone, 2009; Fessler, 1995; Tickle, 2000), when talking about the professional development of teachers, point to three phases - the phase of initial education (pre- service training), the introduction to work (induction phase) and the phase of continuous professional development (in-service training). The initial teacher education represents a formal preparation of teachers during which basic teaching competences are acquired. The induction phase is a stage when, with the support of mentors, real first independent steps into the role of teachers are made, i.e. when for the first time teaching is carried out independently. It is also a phase in which a novice teacher faces the professional reality. The phase of continuous professional development is the phase in which a teacher overcomes initial challenges and continues to work on improving their competences.
The initial teacher education cannot prepare future teachers for all situations and challenges they will encounter during the first years of work in the profession. Internship is also an adaptation period, during which the novice teacher tries to adapt to the work environment (system of norms, values and expectations present in the teaching staff) and besides the relationships with colleagues they try to establish collaboration with students and parents. The first years of teaching can be very stressful for many teachers because the encounter with the reality of everyday school life affects the loss of idealised image of the role of teachers that students gained during their initial education. Furthermore, internship also represents a turning point, that is, the period of transition from the student’s role to the teacher’s role, during which a person has to change their old patterns of behaviour. Therefore, this period is called ‘praxis-shock’ (Veenman, 1984) and ‘transition shock’ (Corcoran, 1981) by some authors. Quality induction contributes to overcoming the problems faced by teachers at the beginning of their carriers and represents an important preventive measure against leaving the profession by the teachers after several years of work (OECD 2014). The most positive effect on the professional development of interns is that of comprehensive induction programs, which include support from multiple sources, cooperation of a number of teachers and assistance of school principals (Ingersoll & Strong, 2011). In this way, internship becomes a bridge that connects the initial teacher education and school work, i.e. allows easy transition from student’s to teacher's life and the acquisition of expertise (Tickle, 2000).
Teaching and Learning International Survey - TALIS examines the conditions in which learning takes place and the conditions in which teachers work. Theoretical framework of the TALIS survey was developed by experts in the field of teaching, international research consortium and by the OECD and it is based on the concept of efficient teaching and learning. The selection, development and retention of teachers in the teaching profession are the key factors that lead to higher student achievement in schools around the world (OECD 2014). Therefore, one of the important research questions of TALIS 2013 is the question of the extent to which teachers' professional development needs are met within the education system (OECd 2014). The main objective of this paper is to examine practices in Serbian school that are intended to support teachers who are new to the profession or new to the school. Furthermore, the paper aims, based on the analysis of availability and participation rate in induction and mentoring program for teachers in Serbia and by comparing these results with the TALIS average and the results of the selected countries to formulate recommendations for decision makers in education.
Corcoran, E. (1981). Transition shock: The beginning teacher's paradox. Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 19-23. Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational researcher, 38(3), 181-199. Fessler, R. (1995). Dynamics of Teacher Career Stages. In T. Guskey and M. Huberman (eds.), Professional Development in Education, New Paradigms and Practices (171-192). New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Ingersoll, R. M. & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of educational research, 81, 201–233. OECD (2014). TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, OECD Publishing. Tickle, L. (2000). Teacher induction: The way ahead. Buckingham: Open University Press Veenman, S. (1984). Perceived problems of beginning teachers. Review of educational research, 54(2), 143–178.
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