22 SES 01 D, Employability and Societal Value of Higher Education
In general the goal of higher education policies in Europe is to increase participation in Higher Education (Leuze 2010, p. 100; Osborne 2003). Fostering the expansion of Higher Education leads unavoidable to the question how graduates manage the transition from Higher Education to work (Little 2008). The list of empirical studies that have addressed the transition from Higher education to work on a cross-national level is extensive. As examples one can mention the studies CHEERS (Careers after Higher Education: a European Research Study) (Paul/Teichler/Van der Velden 2000) and REFLEX (The Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society New Demands on Higher Education in Europe) (Arthur & Little 2010; Allen & Van der Velden 2007). These comparative studies generated empirical insights on individual study paths, the transition process from higher education to employment, the overall job satisfaction, and also the retrospective view on Higher education (Brennan 2008; Little 2008; Teichler 2002a; Teichler 2007a; Teichler 2007b). Nonetheless cross-national comparisons lack on providing details on specific graduates respectively specific study programs (Teichler 2002a). In our study which was conducted in 2011 and 2013 we intended to focus on graduates from Oulu University, Finland who were enrolled in the Faculty of Educational Science and Psychology and graduates from Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich who were enrolled in the study program “Psychology of Excellence in Business and Education”. The goal is it to generate empirical data on particular occupational groups with multiple career opportunities. On a national level the amount of studies is rather small dealing with career paths of educationalists and psychologists. The survey “Diplom-Pädagogen in Deutschland” from 2001 was one of the first systematic attempts to disclose the situation for educationalists in Germany (Krüger & Rauschenbach 2004; Krüger & Züchner 2002; Rauschenbach 2002). Comparative data from Finland, in that respect, is missing. This paper compares the results of two alumni surveys conducted at the University of Oulu, Finland and the LMU Munich, Germany in order to have more empirical knowledge about the transition processes of graduates from education and psychology.
The research questions address the retrospective view on study motives, factors which enhanced the job entry and specific factors on job satisfaction. Apparently the professional satisfaction of university graduates is influenced by a number of personal and situational factors (Cornelißen 2008; Teichler 2002b). Career success can be also divided between subjective and objective career success (Abele/Spurk/Volmer 2011). Both concepts might not necessarily relate. Other research questions deal with conducive and unconducive factors of the career entry also addressing obstacles. There are many career opportunities for Educationalists and Psychologists in related or even non-educational fields so therefore it is important to backtrack individual career paths (Rauschenbach & Züchner 2004; Rauschenbach 2002). For educational research it is very valuable to know how graduates integrate into the job market and how they proceed. Not only to have insights about the wide variety of entered professional fields and job specialization processes, but also to portray individual career paths in respect to specific subjective decisions. This study wants to provide feedback to the Universities by revealing the impact of scientific education to the individual career. The results of the Oulu-Survey will be compared with the findings from LMU Munich survey in regards to the cross-national European Surveys. This research may contribute to the field of Higher Education and would like to stress the educational necessity of analysing career paths quantitatively in order to initiate debates about the role of universities in career development.
Abele, A. E., Spurk, D., & Volmer, J. (2011). The construct of career success: measurement issues and an empirical example. Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung, 43(3), 195–206. Allen, J. & Van der Velden, R. (eds.) (2007). The Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society: General Results of the REFLEX Project, The Netherlands: Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market, University of Maastricht. Arthur, L. & Little, B. (2010). The REFLEX study: exploring graduates views on the relationship between higher education and employment. Centre for Higher Education Research and Information, The Open University, London, UK. Brennan, J. (2008). It’s not always what you know: why graduates get jobs, in Hochschule im Wandel, B. Kemm (ed.), Frankfurt/ New York: Campus Verlag. Krüger, H.-H. & Rauschenbach, T. (2004). PädagogInnen in Studium und Beruf – eine einleitende Skizze. In: H.-H. Krüger & T. Rauschenbach (Hrsg.), Pädagogen in Studium und Beruf – Empirische Bilanzen und Zukunftsperspektiven (S. 9–30). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag. Krüger, H.-H. & Züchner, I. (2002). Karriere ohne Muster? Berufsverläufe von Diplom- und Magister- Pädagoginnen. In H.-U. Otto, T. Rauschenbach, P. Vogel (Hrsg.), Erziehungswissenschaft: Arbeitsmarkt und Beruf (S. 75–94). Opladen: Leske + Budrich. Leuze, K. (2010). Smooth Path or Long and Winding Road? How Institutions Shape the Transition from Higher Education to Work. Opladen; Farmington Hills/Mich.: Budrich UniPress. Little, B. (2008). Graduate development in European employment-issues and contradictions, Education and Training, 50 (5), 379 -390. Paul,J.-J./ Teichler, U./ Van der Velden, R. (eds.). Higher Education and Graduate Employment, European Journal of Education, Vol. 35, No. 2, June 2000 (special issue). Rauschenbach, T. & Züchner, I. (2004). Studium und Arbeitsmarkt der Haupftfachstudierenden. In: R. Tippelt, T. Rauschenbach & H. Weishaupt (Hrsg.), Datenreport Erzie-hungswissenschaft 2004 (S. 39–54). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag/GWS Fachverlage. Rauschenbach, T. (2002). Diplom-PädagogInnen – Gewinner oder Verlierer auf dem Arbeitsmarkt? In: H.-U. Otto, T. Rauschenbach & P. Vogel (Hrsg.), Erziehungswissenschaft: Arbeitsmarkt und Beruf (S. 31–42). Opladen: Leske + Budrich. Teichler, U. (2002a). Diversification of Higher Education Institutions and the Profile of the Individual Institution. Higher Education Management and Policy, 14, pp. 177-188. Teichler, U. (2002b). Graduate Employment and Work in Europe: Diverse Situations and Common Perceptions. Tertiary Education and Management, 8, pp. 199- 216. Teichler, U. (2007a). Does Higher Education Matter? Lessons from a Comparative Graduate Survey. European Journal of Education, 42, pp. 11-34. Teichler, U. (2007b). Higher Education Systems. Conceptual Frameworks, Comparative Perspectives. Rotterdam: Sense-Publishers.
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