17 SES 05, Theory & Methodology (Part 1)
Paper Session to be continued in 17 SES 06
History of Childhood refers to the theory including views on children, children’s lives, and child-rearing practices as well as environments and surroundings changing over time (from past to present). Paintings could help us to go through the interpretations of Childhood and the world of children. The research focuses on the interdisciplinary aspects, the methods of the analysis and the thematic aspects of the selected pictures.
To look into the Renaissance paintings, manuscripts, old-prints and wooden-block prints – using my iconographic method, we could see conceptions of the childhood of the Renaissance era. However children were much more vulnerable than today, they learned to live with this problem. Using microhistorical perspectives we could understand more several situations, and aspects of everyday life and mentality.
According to Colin Heywood there is a possible definition on childhood – it is an abstraction, referring to a particular stage of life, which changes over time and varies between social and ethnic groups within any society. Historians wish to recreate the day-to-day experiences of children in the past. This is the social history of children. (Heywood 2001) We must not compare present childhood conceptions to the past ones using the modern perspective. We have to accept the mentality of the time, e.g medical practices of the specific era. Sociologists James and Prout (James and Prout 1997) published their theory about childhood as a social construction. The new paradigm is potentially fruitful for historians. If we analyse paintings with iconographic methods we can see children as social actors. Paintings could help us to go through the interpretations of Childhood and the world of children.
To conclude this theoretical schema we could declare that the narrative of childhood can be seen in many different ways, we could have our specific conception of childhood. We can not state a global conception of childhood. (Szabolcs 2004)
The goals of the research:
1.To introduce possible visual analysing methods for qualitative research methodology. 2. To introduce new sources for History of Childhood and Education- such as old-prints, woodenblock-prints and illuminated manuscripts. 3. To understand Conceptions of Childhood within a special Era, Late Renaissance narratives about Childhood
Why we should consider part of the Late Renaissance (1455-1517) as a possible era of such research?
- We wished to understand how the inventions of printing and the reformation affected the way of thinking about child rearing practices.
- The importance of these decades in the Art History is also considered very high: Painters such as Mantegna or Dürer used special viewpont, analysed the human body, observed anatomy, applied golden section, used new colors, technics.
- In the cristian canon the theories changed from Christ as a Human to a Child.
- There is a gap in the secondary sources of History of Childhood regarding the following theoretics works: Shahar, Pollock, Alexandre-Bidon, Closson, Heywood, Cunningham, Németh, Szabolcs.
- Some of the secondary sources end the Renaissance era in 1500. Is 1500 the Real starting point of the Modern History?
Boutaud, Jean-Jacques (1989): Application des recherches en iconographie publicitaire á la pédagogie de l’expression en I.U.T, ANRT, Lille 3, France. Collier, Malcolm (2010): Approches to analysis in visual antropology, in. van Leeuwen, Theo – Jewitt, Carey (eds., 2010): Handbook of Visual Analysis, Sage, Los Angeles-London-New Delhi-Singapore-Washington, pp. 35-61. Cunningham, Hugh (2005). Children and Childhood in Western Society Since 1500, Pearson Education Limited, London. Hendrick, Harry (2000): The Child as a Social Actor in Historical Sources – Problems of Identification and Interpretation, in: Christianssen, P. – James, A.: Research with Children: Perspectives and Practices, Routledge Falmer, Taylor & Francis Group, Oxon, Great Britain. Heywood, Colin (2001): History Of Childhood, Blackwell Publishers Ltd., Malden, USA. James, A. – Prout, A. (szerk., 1997): Constructing an Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood, Falmers Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, Washington, D.C. Kress, Gunther and Leeuwen, Theo van: Reading Images, The Grammar of Visual Design, London and New York, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006. Németh András – Pukánszky Béla (2004). A pedagógia problématörténete. Gondolat, Budapest. Peim, Nick (2005): Introduction: The Life of Signs in Visual History, in: Mietzner, Ulrike, Pollock, Linda (1983): Forgotten Children: Parent-child relations from 1500 to 1900, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Postman, Neil (1983): The Dissapearance of Childhood. W.H. Allen, London. Shorter, Edward (1976): The Making of the Modern Family, Collins, London. Smith, Ken – Moriarty, Sandra – Barbatsis, Gretchen – Kenney, Keith (eds., 2005): Handbook of Visual Communication, Theory, Methods and Media, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Mahwah, New Jersey, London. Szabolcs Éva (2001): Kvalitatív kutatatási metodológia a pedagógiában, Műszaki kiadó, Budapest. Szabolcs Éva (2003): Gyermekkortörténet: új elméleti megfontolások, in: Pukáánszky Béla (2003, szerk.): Két évszázad gyermekei, Eötvös József könyvkiadó, 9-17. Szabolcs Éva (2004): „Narratívák” a gyermekkorról, Iskolakultúra, 3., pp.27-31.
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