09 SES 05 C, External School Evaluations and School Self-evaluations
School evaluation can provide schools with guidelines and parameters to follow in order to make positive changes that facilitate school development and student learning (Dahler-Larsen, 2006). This paper is the result of an analysis of External School Evaluation (ESE), an evaluation method initiated by the Norwegian Education Directorate, which is a tool for school development. ESE is an evaluation of school practice in an area chosen by the school itself, after school leaders have carried out an analysis of development needs. Two external evaluators conduct the assessment. These evaluators prepare the work by developing a Future Image—a schema that, describes signs of good practice in one chosen area, of the school in question. The evaluators visit the school for three to four days, collect information/data due to the Future image, analyse the information, and deliver an evaluation report on their last day. The feedback the school receives from this process should contribute to its quality development. Some schools are given help by a national supervisors corps, organized by the directorate. In cases where the national supervisors are associated with ESE, they contribute with knowledge, experience, and advice to schools and school authorities, and are able to follow up after that process and start with development. In this paper we examine:
- How does ESE contribute to school development?
- How do external supervisors contribute?
The Committee for Quality in Primary and Secondary Education in Norway (2003), defined three areas of quality of students’ learning in a broad sense (i.e., the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes): results, structure, and process. The quality of results describes the desired results of educational activities—students’ learning in a broad sense. Structural quality describes the external presuppositions: the establishment’s organisation and its available resources. Process quality refers to the internal activities of the establishment—the work on education itself.
ESE aims to enhance quality of a school, and the definition of quality was used as the basis for the interview guides that were used to gather knowledge about how the different actors experienced ESE’s contribution to increased quality in process, structure, and results in schools. In the analysis and understanding of our data, we have benefited from the so-called “actor-network” approach, which is derived primarily from social studies of society and technology (Latour, 1987), but also from studies of the implementation of public policy (Buland, 1996). This perspective provides a good tool for understanding how actors build networks consisting of both human and non-human entities and actors to realize this goal. This, in turn, gives us a good foundation for understanding the importance of ESE in concrete school development. Within the actor-network approach (Latour 1987), one operates with the concept of non-human actors. Actor-network approaches analyse and explain change as a result of actors' construction of heterogeneous actor-networks around scenarios or images of reality. In relation to the school, such non-human actors can be regulations, guidelines, curricula, strategic plans, work plans, curriculum, textbooks, and research results, among others. In order to realise a project, actors develop such a network around a particular scenario, story, or narrative about a desired reality or future, and how to get there, as well as how the school's different stakeholders can contribute to achieving their common goals. ESE and the process report can be understood, therefore, as a non-human actor—an ally in the effort to develop the school in a determined direction. This underlines the fact that, to follow Prior (2011), documents do things as well as contain things, and ESE becomes an instrument for local action and change.
Argyris, C., & Schön, D. A. (1978). Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading, Mass.: Addi-son-Wesley. Randi Boelskifte Skovhus & Rie Thomsen (2015): Popular problems, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Buland, T. (1996). Den store planen. Norges satsing på informasjonsteknologi 1987-90, avhandling levert til vurdering for graden Dr.polit. ved Universitetet i Trondheim, Trondheim: Senter for teknologi og samfunn, NTNU Dahler-Larsen, P. (2006). Evalueringskultur: Et begreb bliver til. Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag. Earl, L.M., Katz, S., & Ben Jaafar, S. (2009). Building and connecting learning communities: The power of net-works for school improvement. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Elmore, R. (2008). Leadership as the practice of improvement. I B. Pont, D. Nusche, & D. Hopkins, Improving school leadership, volume 2: Case studies on system leadership (s. 37–67). London: OECD. Emstad, A.B. (2011). The principals role in the post evaluation process. How does the principal engage in the work carried out after the school evaluation? Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Acoountability. 23 (4), s.271-288 Emstad, A. B. (2012). Rektors engasjement i arbeidet med oppfølging av skolevurdering: En kvalitativ kasusstudie av hvordan seks norske barneskoler har brukt skolevurdering i sitt arbeid med forbedring av skolen som læringsarena. Trondheim: NTNU Emstad, A.B., & Robinson, V.M.J. (2011) The role of eadership in evaluation utilization: Cases from Norwegian primary schools. Nordic Studies in Edication, 31 (4), 245-247 Ertsås, T., & Irgens, E.J. (2012). Teoriens betydning for profesjonell yrkesutøvelse. I M.B. Fleischer, D., & Christie, C. (2009). Evaluation Use: Results From a servey of US American Evaluation Association Members. American Journal of Evaluation, 30(2), 158–175. Forss, K., Cracknell, B., & Samset, K. (1994). Can evaluation help an organization to learn? Evaluation review, 18(5), 574 - 591. Sage publication Goddard, D., & Leask, M. (1992). The search for quality: Planning for improvement and managing change. Lon-don: Paul Chapman. Mathews, D. (2010). Improving learning through whole-school evaluation: moving towards a model of internal evaluation in Irish post-primary schools. Phd avhandling, National university of Irland, Maynooth. Nusche, D., Earl, L., Maxwell, W., & Shewbridge, C. (2011). OECD reviews of evaluation and assessment in edu-cation. OECD-vurdering av norsk utdanningspolitikk. Oslo: Aschehoug. Timperley, H. (2008). Teacher professional learning and development. Brussels: The International Academy of Education. Utdanningsdirektoratet (2015). TTegn på god prakiss. Kom igang med skoletuvikling Oslo: Forfatteren
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.