04 SES 10 B, Views of Pupils and Teachers of Inclusive Education
After the 1994 Salamanca Statement, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006) is undoubtedly the most significant milestone in the development of inclusion and inclusive education. However, up till now there have been various meanings and definitions concerning inclusion and inclusive education (Graham & Slee, 2008). This presents research into the field of SEBD inclusion with a considerable challenge (Goodman & Burton, 2010). Children with SEBD are most likely to be affected by disciplinary exclusion and are the group with the highest drop-out rate (Herz, 2014; Razer, Friedman, & Warshofsky, 2013). Research results concerning the effects of different educational settings for pupils with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties are ambiguous (Stein & Ellinger, 2015). The majority of literature has concentrated on SEBD at an organisational (Reiser, Willmann, & Urban, 2007) or intervention level (Gasteiger-Klicpera, Julius, & Klicpera, 2008). Less research has focused on SEBD from the point of view of the pupils (Cefai & Cooper, 2010). There is a limited amount of research on pupils’ views (Ryan, 2009), perspectives (Paige-Smith & Rix, 2011) and voices (O'Connor, Hodkinson, Burton, & Torstensson, 2011).
Special attention needs to be paid to viewpoint of pupils with SEBD in inclusive and segregated education. However, the extent to which this applies has not been empirically addressed, meaning that until now a consideration of pupils’ views in the field of SEBD has been lacking in the literature. “Despite the growth of research employing the views of young people, the voices of young people with SEBD are among the least heard” (Michael & Frederickson, 2013, p. 408).
This paper examines inclusive and segregated education for primary school children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD). Recent developments in inclusive and segregated education are analysed through pupil’s views as well as through parent’s views as a second order viewpoint.
The following questions are given special attention:
How do pupils view the school setting (inclusive/segregated)?
How do pupils feel about participation in decision-making in different school settings?
What future perspectives do they think they have?
What about well-being of these pupils in different school settings?
This paper presents a cross-sectional study of primary schools in 2014/15 and 2015/16. The sampling was carried out using a random draw with additional consideration of area-related criteria (city, county, population). Special schools and inclusive schools were included. Surveys at schools make multi-level approval procedures necessary (school board at the country level, school directors, teachers, parents and pupils).
Nearly three-quarters of the school directors asked refused to allow the survey to be carried out at their schools. The number of participating schools for 2014/15 was 36 out of a possible 142 schools (25.35%). Out of 1,329 parents, one third granted permission for their children to be questioned for the survey.
Cefai, C., & Cooper, P. (2010). Students without voices: The unheard accounts of secondary school students with social, emotional and behaviour difficulties. European journal of special needs education, 25(2), 183–198. doi:10.1080/08856251003658702 Gasteiger-Klicpera, B., Julius, H., & Klicpera, C. (Eds.). (2008). Sonderpädagogik der sozialen und emotionalen Entwicklung [Special education of social and emotional development]. Göttingen: Hogrefe. Goodman, R. L., & Burton, D. M. (2010). The inclusion of students with BESD in mainstream schools: teachers’ experiences of and recommendations for creating a successful inclusive environment. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 15(3), 223–237. doi:10.1080/13632752.2010.497662 Herz, B. (2014). Pädagogik bei Verhaltensstörungen: An den Rand gedrängt? [Education for SEBD: Pushed to the side?]. Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik, 65(1), 4–14. Michael, S., & Frederickson, N. (2013). Improving pupil referral unit outcomes: Pupil perspectives. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 18(4), 407–422. doi:10.1080/13632752.2013.801112 O’Connor, M., Hodkinson, A., Burton, D., & Torstensson, G. (2011). Pupil voice: Listening to and hearing the educational experiences of young people with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD). Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 16(3), 289–302. doi:10.1080/13632752.2011.595095 Paige-Smith, A., & Rix, J. (2011). Researching early intervention and young children’s perspectives – developing and using a ‘listening to children approach’. British Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 28–36. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8578.2011.00494.x Rauer, W., & Schuck, K. D. (2003). FEESS 3-4: Fragebogen zur Erfassung emotionaler und sozialer Schulerfahrungen von Grundschulkindern dritter und vierter Klassen: Manual [FEESS 3-4: Questionnaire for recording the emotional and social classroom experiences of primary school children in the third and fourth year]. Göttingen: Beltz. Razer, M., Friedman, V. J., & Warshofsky, B. (2013). Schools as agents of social exclusion and inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(11), 1152–1170. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.742145 Reiser, H., Willmann, M., & Urban, M. (2007). Sonderpädagogische Unterstützungssysteme bei Verhaltensproblemen in der Schule [Special education supportive systems for pupils with behavioural difficulties]. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt. Ryan, D. (2009). ‘Inclusion is more than a place’: Exploring pupil views and voice in Belfast schools through visual narrative. British Journal of Special Education, 36(2), 77–84. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8578.2009.00422.x Stein, R., & Ellinger, S. (2015). Zwischen Separation und Inklusion: zum Forschungsstand im Förderschwerpunkt emotionale und soziale Entwicklung [Between inclusion and segregation: The state of research in SEBD]. In R. Stein & T. Müller (Eds.), Inklusion im Förderschwerpunkt emotionale und soziale Entwicklung [Inclusion and SEBD] (pp. 76–109). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. United Nations. (2006). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf
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