17 SES 07, Comparative Approaches
There is a perception in developing countries that children’s direct access to new technologies increase their learning. Hence, ICT integration in education rapidly improving in these countries. But it is specified in the Global Information Technology Report published in 2015 that this is not a true belief. There are explanations about why ICT integration in education fails in the report and it also mentions about the importance of focusing on educators instead of children access to technology (Behar & Mishra, 2015). United Kingdom aims to cover the 90% of population with superfast internet connection and lowered the computing course age to 5. However, according to the recent results of a wide research shows that diffusion of ICT, internet connection and student access to internet have no significant effect on education and student productivity (Faber, Sanchis-Guarner & Weinhardt, 2015). Similar to this, some of the recently completed ICT integration projects showed that students’ access to ICT has no direct effect on quality of education. It is determined that in the Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) Project, course completion rate is 7% in the year of 2013 (Parr, 2013). There are also several researches about One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project that emphasize giving every child a laptop both enforces the country budget unnecessarily and it has no significant contribution to education (James, 2011; James, 2014; Cristia, 2013). This situation in developing countries creates some questions in mind about ICT integration in education. What is wrong with ICT in education? Is ICT integration is a necessity for education? How should it be planned and implemented?
Several ICT integration projects have being implemented since 1984 by Ministry of Education in Turkey (Goktas, Gedik & Baydas, 2013). At the same time, Turkey has been participating to TIMSS assessments since 1999 and PISA assessments since 2003 as a developing country. Also Turkey is located in the Global Information Report, a detailed research about information technology across the world written by World Economic Forum. Considering Turkey’s ICT integration in education studies, students in Turkey are below the overall average in basic subjects such as science and mathematics, in 21st century competencies such as creative problem solving and in information technology literacy and also quality of education is below the world average according to the World Economic Forum’s report, assessment results such as PISA and TIMSS and ICT integration in Turkey. Examining the PISA, TIMSS assessment results and global reports about countries, it can be seen that Singapore takes first place in most topics and it takes place in Top 5 all the time in all topics. Also, when the ICT integration in education studies of Singapore are examined, it can be understood that Singapore started to these studies at the same time with Turkey and these two countries have some similarities in terms of ICT integration process. Because of this reason it is intended to conduct a research between Turkey and Singapore in terms of ICT in education and it is aimed to find responses to the questions at the end of the first paragraph. In this context, the aim of this study is to present the ICT integration of Turkey and Singapore from past to present by analyzing and comparing their history of ICT in education and to determine the similarities and differences between them.
Babbie, E. (2013). The basics of social research (14th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning Inc. Babbie, E. (2015). The practice of social research (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning Inc. Behar, A., & Mishra, P. (2015). ICTs in schools: Why focusing policy and resources on educators, not children, will improve educational outcomes. In S. Dutta, T. Geiger, & B. Lanvin (Eds.), Global Information Technology Report 2015 (pp. 73-78). World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Global_IT_Report_2015.pdf Cristia, J. (2013). One laptop per child in Peru: Findings and the road forward. IDB Blogs, February 28. Retrieved from http://blogs.iadb.org/education/2013/02/28/one-laptop-per-child-in-peru-findingsand-the-road-forward/ Faber, B., Sanchis-Guarner, R., & Weinhardt, F. (2015). ICT and education: Evidence from student home addresses. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No:21306. doi:10.3386/w21306 Goktas, Y., Gedik, N., & Baydas, O. (2013). Enablers and barriers to the use of ICT in primary schools in Turkey: A comparative study of 2005-2011. Computers & Education, 68, 211-222. James, J. (2011). Low-cost computers for education in developing countries. Social Indicators Research, 103(3), 399-408. James, J. (2014). Macroeconomic consequences of the one laptop per child project. Journal of International Development, 27(1), 144-146. Mahoney, J., & Rueschemeyer, D. (2003). Comparative historical analysis in the social sciences. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Parr, C. (2013). “Mooc Completion Rates ‘below 7%’.” The Times Higher Education, May 9. Retrieved from https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/mooc-completion-rates-below-7/2003710.article
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.