04 SES 04 A, Dialogue, Communication and Structural Social Relationships
One of the principal characteristics of the XXI century is the rapid shift of its citizens to what we know as the Society of Information and Knowledge. We are surrounded by technology that pervades our daily lives, from the entertainment to training and employment; that is why since the 90’s reforms were started in all European countries for the introduction of ICT in the classroom. Spain has made over the last 15 years remarkable economic efforts that have significantly improved the technological equipment in schools, but although the ratio of computers per students has been lowered to 8 students for each computer, OECD (2011) shows use quotes of 18% of the hours in scientific subjects for 15 years old students and worse results in other subjects such as maths with 10% of the total hours of the course. These results get worse in primary education.
Existence does not mean use; there is a huge disconnection between social development and educational reality in our country (Cabero and Córdoba, 2009) and teaching methodology is the turning point, not only for the inclusion in education, but also for the social advances that our own contexts and students demand. After years of attempts to achieve inclusion working in the introduction of new tools and new aims for the school of the XXI century, there is something that does not work yet: it is impossible to achieve social progress with individualistic thoughts and actions (Calzadilla, 2002). This is the main objetive of the research that we propose: to strengthen the path towards inclusive education from two essential keys: ICT and cooperative learning (CL).
We base these work points on the ideas for inclusive change that were underlined by the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities held in 2006 (European Agency, 2013), where ICT were referred as key tools for promoting equal opportunities in education, and also on the targets set by OECD as essential characteristics of the students of the XXI century on its DeSeCo project (OECD, 2005): use of wide range of tools, interacting in heterogeneous groups and individual responsibility in the management of his life. In Spain, the ICT, as a means and as an end (González and Zariquiey, 2012), has been written as a right and we are working hard on its development, but the use of CL as principal methodology in the classroom has been showed important problems, requiring constant justification to the educational community and families.
We should consider CL as an appropriate teaching methodology to optimize the use of digital medias and to develop learning environments that promote the integral development of students and their multiple capacities (Basilotta and Herrada, 2013). With the aim of clarify the keys that exist in the use of both, tools and methodology, to conduct a true personalization of education, we present the first part of this research which is focused on the study of best practices in schools.
We are working on the first part which takes place in Denmark, a country that ranks as the main reference for conducting a sound analysis and realistic goal for the use of both pillars for key educational inclusion and where the research led by Stefan Graf "Inklusion og digitale læringsmiljøer undervisningsdifferentiering i"(IDDL) will be the benchmark for our analysis. This project is financed by the Ministry of Education with the aim of creating inclusive digital environments in the classroom by differentiated teaching. They are working on three dimensions: technologies, didactic aspects and organization, which are guiding the data analysis of our project.
Basilotta, V. y Herrada, G. (2013). Aprendizaje a través de proyectos colaborativos con TIC. Análisis de dos experiencias en el contexto educativo. EDUTEC, Revista Electrónica de Tecnología Educativa, 44, 1-13. Cabero, J. y Córdoba, M. (2009). Inclusión educativa: inclusión digital. Revista Educación Inclusiva, 2(1), 61-77. Calzadilla, M.E. (2002). Aprendizaje colaborativo y tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Retrieved from http://www.rieoei.org/deloslectores/322Calzadilla.pdf European Agency (2013). Information and Communication Technology for Inclusion. Developments and Opportunities for European Countries. Retrieved from http://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/ICT%20for%20Inclusion-EN.pdf González, E. and Zariquiey, F. (2012). Las TIC y el aprendizaje cooperativo. In J.C. Torrego y A. Negro (Coords.), Aprendizaje cooperativo en las aulas. Fundamentos y recursos para su implantación, (pp. 21-45). Madrid: Alianza Editorial. OECD (2005). La definición y selección de competencias clave. Retrieved from http://www.deseco.admin.ch/bfs/deseco/en/index/03/02.parsys.78532.downloadList.94248.DownloadFile.tmp/2005.dscexecutivesummary.sp.pdf OECD (2011). PISA 2009 Results: Students On Line. Digital Technologies and Performance. Paris: OECD Publishing. Stake, R.E. (1999). Investigación con estudio de casos (4ª ed.). Madrid: Ediciones Morata S.L. Yin, R. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (4ª ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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