29 SES 03, Case Studies in Music Education
Our research focuses on the pragmatic issues of teaching music in our age. It is put in an international perspective and aims to discuss the ways formal musical education can be complemented with innovative modes of concert pedagogy. In addition, we have also studied and compared curricular and extracurricular methods as well as non-formal models of musical education. We have paid special attention to the effect of how family background and the cultural capital originating from it (Bourdieu, 1978) influence children’s attitude towards cultural values. The study is part of an international research, the aim of which is to examine lesser known aspects of musical education in three Central European countries (Hungary, Romania and Serbia) together with the factors affecting the musical culture of the pupils and the methods of how listening to music can be developed. The study also deals with the educational systems and curricula of the participating countries. The importance of introducing children to music is emphasized; live musical performances and various extracurricular cultural events are also given special consideration in this respect. We are also concerned with studying habits of listening to music from the point of view of education, making the issue of children becoming active music listeners a point of significance as well. On the other hand, we also look into the question of how merely passive habits of listening to music can be developed into an adequate cultural attitude. In Hungary the fundamental concept of school-based musical education was laid down by Zoltán Kodály, as his philosophy of music pedagogy was of utmost importance from nursery schools to teaching music to future professionals. “What should be done? Singing and music should be taught in school not as a torture for students but as a joy, injecting a noble musical thirst for a lifetime". (Kodály 1982: 207).Following Kodály’s principles both Hungarian and international research deal with the beneficial effects of musical education on general intellectual development, which has been pointed out by several transfer-studies (Kokas 1972, Bácskai, Manchin, Sági, Vitányi 1972, Barkóczi, Pléh 1978, Hodges 2000) with regard to other disciplines, skills and abilities. The Seachore-test was employed by Laczó (1978-1979) to measure musical abilities. The role of the musical abilities in school efficiency was studied by Knappek (2002) and Janurik (2008). The examination of the primary school pupils’ attitudes towards classical music made it clear that those who had more opportunities to learn music would understand classical music sooner (Roulston 2006, Guth 2006, Janurik, Pethő 2009, Schmidt 2012). The transfer-effect of advanced musical education clearly evens out the differences deriving from the inequalities of cultural capital, helping to remove social and cultural barriers (Harris, 1996). The internet and other means of mass communication make music available in a limitless amount and quality, so the listener also becomes a consumer (Baudrillard, 1998; Stachó 2008). Modern researchers focus on the study of attitudes towards music, the factors influencing musical taste and the creation of a system of musical values (Wheeler 1985, Dohány 2010, Hausmann 2013). Relevant scholarship and earlier studies (Mende, Neuwöhner 2006) have shown that if children and youngsters are frequently exposed to classical music together with other positive values, it will contribute to the development of their competence in classical music. In a previous study we set the aim to examine the influence of modern information technology and the internet on the habits of pupils of the junior sections of primary schools attending cultural events (Váradi 2010).
Bácskai, E., Manchin, R., Sági, M. & Vitányi, I. (1972). Ének-zenei iskolába jártak. Budapest: Zeneműkiadó. Barkóczi, I. & Pléh, Cs. (1978). Kodály zenei nevelési módszerének pszichológiai hatásvizsgálata. Kecskemét: Kodály Zoltán Zenepedagógiai Intézet. Baudrillard, J. (1998). The Consumer Society. Myths and Structures. Sage Publications, London. Bourdieu, P.(1978). The reproduction of social inequality. Budapest. Gondolat. Campbell, P.S. (2005). Deep Listening to the Musical World. Music Educators Journal, 92 (1) 30-37. Dohány, G. (2012). Assessment of music literacy among secondary students In: Dombi Józsefné, Maczelka Noémi (szerk.) Liszt-Mahler tanulmánykötet. Szeged, SZTE JGYPK Művészeti Intézet Ének-zene Tanszék, 21-129. Guth, P.(2006). The Importance of Music Education Retrieves from: http://education.more4kids.info/23/the-importance-of-music-education/ Hausmann Kóródy, A. (2013): A középiskolások zenei ízlése. PedActa, 3. 2. 1-12. Harris, C. E. (1996). Technology, Rationalities, and Experience in School Music Policy. Arts Education Policy Review, 97(6), 23-32. Hodges, D. A. (2000). Implications of Music and Brain Research. Music Educators Journal, 87(2), 17–22. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3399643 Janurik, M. (2008). A zenei képességek szerepe az olvasás elsajátításában. Magyar Pedagógia,(108)4. 295-320. Knappek, R. (2002): The effects of the intensive music education for the general and individual development of children. In: Hang és lélek. Budapest: Magyar Zenei Tanács, 95-108. Kodály, Z. (1982). Visszatekintés. Budapest, Zeneműkiadó Kokas, K. (1972). Képességfejlesztés zenei neveléssel. Budapest, Zeneműkiadó. Laczó, Zoltán (2002). Zenepedagógia és társadalom. In: Hang és Lélek. Budapest, Magyar Zenei Tanács. Mende, A. and Neuwöhner, U. (2006). Wer hört heute klassische Musik? – Musiksozialisation, E-Musik-Nutzung und E-Musik-Kompetenz. in: Das Orchester Magazin. Mainz, Schott Vol. 54. 12. 10-14. Pethő, V., Janurik, M.(2009). Waldorf iskolába járó és általános tantervű tanulók klasszikus zenéhez fűződő attitűdjének összehasonlító elemzése. Iskolakultúra. Online, 1, 24-41. Retrieved from: http://www.iskolakultura.hu/iol/iol_2009_24-41.pdf Roulston, K.(2006). Qualitative Investigation of Young Children's Music Preferences International Journal of Education & the Arts, 7. 9. 12. Schmidt, P. (2012). What We Hear Is Meaning Too. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 20. 1. 3-24. Stachó, L. (2008). Ének, öröm és haszon a Kodály- módszerben. Parlando, (50)2. 21-28. Váradi, J. (2010). How to educate an audience to acquire a taste for classical music. Academic dissertation PhD, Jyväskylä. Retrieved from: https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/24968 9789513938987.pdf?sequence=1 Wheeler, B. L. (1985). Relationship of Personal Charateristics to Mood and Enjoyment after Hearing Live and Recorded Music and to Musical Taste. Psychology of Music. 13. 2. 81-92.
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